Espiner, Tom, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Image Overlay System: Computer-generated Integral Photography An in addition to Viswanathan CIS II 600.446 Image Overlay Picture taken from http://www.mrcas.ri.cmu.edu/projects/overlay/system.html What is Image Overlay The ability to see bone/tissue/target superimposed onto the patient during surgery. Can be used as long as surgical planning. Can be used as long as surgical navigation. Using 3D marker in as long as mation in addition to creating an accurate 2D representation. Superimposing this 2D representation with video input.
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Apparatus Optical Tracking system (ie: Optotrak, POLARIS) PC collecting data from tracking system Lens array LCD display Half silvered mirror Picture taken from http://www.mrcas.ri.cmu.edu/projects/overlay/medical.html Requirements of a 3D navigational system Surgeon should recognize 3D position in addition to orientation of any surgery device. High Image quality. Minimal eyestrain in addition to fatigue 3D representation should include the area surrounding the target. Important Factors to Consider Mechanical Accuracy/ Geometric Accuracy Depth Perception Distortion
Necessary background Three Dimensional Slice Image Overlay System with Accurate Depth Perception as long as Surgery. Ken Masamune, Yoshitaka Mautani, Susumu Nakajima, ichiro Sakuma, Takeyoshi Dohi, Hiroshi Iseki in addition to Kintomo Takakura MICCAI pgs 395-402 Surgical Navigation System with Intuitive Three-Dimensional Display Susumu Nakajima, Sumihisa Orita, Ken Masamune, Ichiro Sakuma Takeyoshi Dohi, in addition to Kozo Nakamura MICCAI pgs 404-411 Principle of Integral Photography (IP) Captures in addition to reproduces 3D objects using a lens array in addition to film. Computer generated IP: 3D info -> 2D coordinates replace film with LCD Computer IP Algorithm Previous computer generated IP algorithm was too costly in addition to could not render medical objects in real time. Novel approach: Consider each point in 3D space as a light source that will be reconstructed. 3D object -> a group of reconstructed light sources
Computer IP Algorithm Main Calculation: Computes the distance of the ith furthest point as long as the reference plane by intersection of 2 light rays. Registration Most Important Problem as long as display Manual Adjustment in addition to then more precise Image Trans as long as mation to align coordinates of markers Geometric Accuracy Most important consideration as long as medical imaging Tested by trying to display a 100 mm square at a distance of 10 to 40 mm from the surface of the LCD Mean differences were less than 3.8 mm
Accuracy from the location of registered image to the object 50mm vitamin capsule w/ 4 MRI markers used to test accuracy Tried to superimpose 3D rendered version on the actual capsule Magnitude of the errors = radius of the markers My Assessment Image overlay is a very powerful tool as long as a surgery. Significantly accurate within an error of 3-4 mm, but can be improved to let surgeon rely on the navigation system. Computer-generated IP allows real-time integration of video in addition to graphics. Possible next steps Better, faster rendering algorithms Better LCD screens: image resolution,pixel pitch. Improved Accuracy Multiple trackers Network integration
Espiner, Tom Contributing Writer
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