Impacts of Geoengineering on Marine Ecosystems Geoengineering The two main methods: CDR in addition to SRM The global carbon cycle (Sarmiento & Gruber, Physics Today (2002) Ecosystem impacts

Impacts of Geoengineering on Marine Ecosystems Geoengineering The two main methods: CDR in addition to SRM The global carbon cycle (Sarmiento & Gruber, Physics Today (2002) Ecosystem impacts www.phwiki.com

Impacts of Geoengineering on Marine Ecosystems Geoengineering The two main methods: CDR in addition to SRM The global carbon cycle (Sarmiento & Gruber, Physics Today (2002) Ecosystem impacts

Christiansen, Erin, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Impacts of Geoengineering on Marine Ecosystems John Shepherd School of Ocean & Earth Science National Oceanography Centre University of Southampton, UK Geoengineering => Climate Intervention or Climate Remediation Deliberate in addition to large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system in order to moderate global warming

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The two main methods: CDR in addition to SRM Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) E.g. ocean fertilisation, engineered CO2 capture from air, enhanced weathering, biochar Solar Radiation Management (SRM) E.g. mirrors in space, stratospheric aerosols, cloud albedo enhancement, white roofs these differ greatly, especially w.r.t. ocean acidification, in addition to the timescale to take effect CDR helps with ocean acidification, but is slow SRM does ~ nothing as long as acidification, but works fast The global carbon cycle (Sarmiento & Gruber, Physics Today (2002) Ecosystem impacts The effects of geoengineering need to be evaluated relative to Pre-industrial (or present day) Expected future (with increased CO2) without GE NB the “moral hazard”: SRM methods could lead to even higher CO2 emissions Successful GE should reduce the expected ecosystem impacts of Climate Change The effects on biodiversity are likely positive C.f. Business-as-usual, or mitigation alone NB: the effects are not necessarily additional May be largely replacement or modulation Possible hierarchy of effects of methods Biological >> Chemical >> Physical

Methods considered SRM methods Non-marine: Space mirrors, stratospheric aerosols, etc Marine cloud brightening (troposphere) Ocean Surface whitening (bubbles, etc) CDR methods Non-marine methods Engineered CO2 capture from air Enhanced weathering (Olivine on soils) Biomass Energy with CCS (BECS), Biochar, af as long as estation Ocean fertilisation (iron or macronutrients) Enhanced ocean upwelling/mixing “Liming the ocean” with CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 Biomass dumping/burial (trees, crop waste, etc) Non-marine SRM: Space mirrors, stratospheric aerosols, etc Reasonably uni as long as m effects in addition to approximate cancellation of major climate changes Some residual under or over-compensation (temperature, precipitation, clouds, etc) Effects of modified regional climate gradients Effects of direct versus diffuse radiation on phytoplankton Effects of reduced stratospheric ozone No major, first-order effects on marine ecosystems Marine cloud brightening Strong localised cooling effects

Possible consequences of strong localised cooling Reduced stratification enhanced mixing, increased nutrient supply, changed seasonal succession Enhanced upwelling shift of ENSO cycle (=>La Nina conditions). Impact (positive ) on pelagic fisheries Increased anoxic “dead” zones Modification of regional weather patterns Changes in prevailing winds, incidence of fog, & precipitation over nearby l in addition to masses Shifts in persistent ocean currents Effects on biogeography of marine biota Ocean Surface whitening (bubbles, particles etc) Probably strong & localised cooling so ~ same effects as as long as cloud brightening Major effects on sea-surface microlayer Changes to chemistry & gas exchange Consequences Bubbles => Persistent surface foam Aesthetic problem Bad as long as bugs Particles => Ingestion by animals => increased mortality Fouling of beaches etc (c.f. polystyrene beads) Non-marine CDR methods Reduced CO2 in addition to ocean acidification NB these apply as long as all CDR methods No other effects on the marine ecosystem ()

Ocean fertilisation (iron or macronutrients) Needs to be substantial (~ doubled primary production, at least locally), so Major effects on biomass, species composition in addition to succession C.f. eutrophication of lakes & estuaries Winners in addition to losers, but net effect is change Consequential effects on food chains/webs Possible increase of anoxic zones Controllable Changes of biogenic gas production (e.g. DMS) Overall effect: comparable to that of agriculture on l in addition to Enhanced ocean upwelling/mixing Likely to involve strong localised cooling in addition to enhanced primary production There as long as e, would have similar effects as as long as both cloud brightening in addition to ocean fertilisation (NB: technical feasibility is doubtful ) “Liming the ocean” with CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 [or Mg] “Alkalinity addition”: Effect is primarily chemical: only secondarily biological Unlikely to alter primary production or biomass directly () Would possibly/probably change relative growth, reproduction etc as long as some plankton => similar sorts of changes as as long as ocean fertilisation, but much smaller Could reduce or reverse the effects of ocean acidification

Biomass dumping/burial (trees, crop waste, etc) If buried in sediments: no serious effects () For dumping in deep water Localised anoxia (which would actually enhance sequestration efficiency ) Major impacts on benthos in vicinity Enhanced food supply as long as scavengers etc Changes to benthic ecosystems: some positive, some negative: problematic Impacts on Marine Ecosystems a very tentative ranking (assuming similar GE effects) ~ Benign () Non-marine SRM (e.g. stratospheric aerosols) Non-marine CDR (e.g. Engineered CO2 air capture) Small to moderate effects “Liming the ocean” with CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 (1) Biomass dumping/burial (trees, crop waste, etc) Major in addition to problematic effects Ocean fertilisation (iron or macronutrients) (1) Enhanced ocean upwelling/mixing Marine cloud brightening (troposphere) Ocean Surface whitening (bubbles, etc) (1) NB: These methods have positive effects w.r.t. ocean acidification Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Conclusions Foreseeable direct impacts vary greatly from maybe benign, to very problematic It’s not a simple CDR/SRM split Possible general hierarchy of effects of methods Biological >> Chemical >> Physical “Best ecological” option (but expensive in addition to slowest) is probably Non-marine CDR (e.g. Engineered CO2 air capture) Both ~ benign in addition to “fixes” ocean acidification Geoengineering is likely to affect Biodiversity but the changes could be positive Compared to (insufficient) mitigation without geoengineering

Christiansen, Erin KGUN 9 News at 6 PM - KGUN-TV Meteorologist www.phwiki.com

Christiansen, Erin Meteorologist

Christiansen, Erin is from United States and they belong to KGUN 9 News at 6 PM – KGUN-TV and they are from  Tucson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Christiansen, Erin deal with the subjects like Meteorology

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