In situ lab on a chip sensors as long as measurement of marine biogeochemistry
Dobbs O’Brien, Sarah, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal In situ lab on a chip sensors as long as measurement of marine biogeochemistry Matt Mowlem1, David Barat1, Robert Zmijan2, Xi Huang2, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou1, Mahadji Bahi1, Vincent Sieben2, Alan Taberham2, Iain Ogilvie2, Cedric Floquet1, David Owsianka1, Hywel Morgan2 Sensors Development Group, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton Nano Research Group, Electronics in addition to Computer Science, University of Southampton Physical Sensing A microfabricated conductivity in addition to temperature (CT) sensor enables measurement of these key physical parameters. Unlike the sensors above, small commercial CT sensors exist. However truly miniaturised CT sensors have insufficient per as long as mance as long as many applications including climate studies. High per as long as mance CT sensors are large (~>2l) in addition to expensive (~£10k). This project aims to develop low cost miniaturised high per as long as mance CT sensors as shown in the table below. The existence of such a sensor would enable sensing from an animal tag (e.g. a fish tag) in addition to would enable construction of complete sensor systems incorporating chemical biological in addition to physical sensors. Nucleic Acid Analysis A LOC analyser enables speciation in addition to study of the physiological state of marine microorganisms by analysis of their RNA using the Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) protocol in addition to fluorescence detection. Prior to NASBA amplification in addition to detection a number of sample processing steps are required i.e. collection of seawater, filtration to collect in addition to concentrate target phytoplankton in a size range of interest, disruption of cells to yield RNA (lysis), extraction in addition to purification of RNA. NASBA is then used to amplify in addition to measure the concentration of specific target sequences. To date we have demonstrated lysis, NASBA in addition to fluorescence detection on chip. Detection of amplified RNA is achieved by using a fluorescently labelled Figure 3: RNA analyser a) Fluorescently labelled (propidium iodide) cells prior to lysis on chip showing defined nuclear perimeter b) on chip lysis demonstrated by ruptured nuclei c) overview of the NASBA amplification pathway, d) prototype chip as long as mixing of extracted RNA with reagents in addition to fluorescence detection (diamond shaped chamber), e) lysis chip (pyrex substrate with aluminium / titanium electrodes) Current research is optimising lysis in addition to fluorescence detection on chip in addition to is designing new on in addition to off chip systems as long as sample processing in addition to RNA extraction. beacon (probe) as long as med from RNA. This fluoresces when it hybridizes with the target RNA sequence. To make the protocol quantitative an internal control (IC) sequence of RNA is added at a known concentration but detected with a different fluorescent beacon with a different emission wavelength. This enables variability in amplification efficiency (which is subject to a number of environmental factors) to be accounted as long as in interpretation of the results. Table 1: Per as long as mance characteristics of commercial in addition to research (DTU in addition to this project) CT sensors Figure 4: Microfabricated Conductivity (7 electrode design) in addition to temperature sensor. (resistive serpentine) Formed from Ti/Pt on pyrex with epoxy laminate insulation. Current research is testing the first prototype. The next goal is to evaluate in addition to enhance long term stability in addition to incorporate a bare Platinum disc microelectrode oxygen sensor in addition to development of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to per as long as m signal conditioning with ultra miniaturised electronics. Conclusions MST in addition to miniaturisation techniques have been successfully applied to four key environmental metrology challenges. Initial results on the bench, in addition to in deployments to 1600m demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. Current research is optimising in addition to enhancing this technology to produce robust in addition to fully functional sensing systems using MST in addition to promises to deliver a paradigm shift in the data available to environmental science Acknowledgements This work is funded through the NERC Oceans 2025 programme (theme 8.1), the collaborative EPSRC /NERC grant EP/E016774/1, in addition to an FP7 Integrated project (labonfoil) . Commercialisation is funded by NERC
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