Inequality is the Problem: What’s Our Response ADAM GAMORANWilliam T. Grant Fou

Inequality is the Problem: What’s Our Response ADAM GAMORANWilliam T. Grant Fou www.phwiki.com

Inequality is the Problem: What’s Our Response ADAM GAMORANWilliam T. Grant Fou

Granato, Heather, Group Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Inequality is the Problem: What’s Our Response ADAM GAMORANWilliam T. Grant FoundationFounded in 1936 Committed to underst in addition to ing human behavior through research. The most pressing challenges confronting young people change over time.1940’s1950’s1930’s1960’s1980’s1970’s1990’s2000’s2010’sCurrent Research Priorities

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Use of Research EvidenceQuality of research evidence has improvedYet when it comes to decisions, research is rarely consultedWhyWe support studies of how research evidence is used in policy in addition to practice Reducing InequalityWe know much about the sources of inequality by economic, race/ethnic, & immigrant originsWays to reduce inequality are less well understoodWe support research on programs, policies, in addition to practices that reduce inequality in youth outcomesAcademic, social, behavioral, in addition to economic outcomes Reducing Inequality“Inequality” has two meaningsOverall dispersion of an outcomeGroup differences in an outcomeWe’d like to reduce the first in addition to eliminate the second

Reducing InequalityFighting poverty is an important part of reducing inequality, but not all there is to itWe’d like to reduce inequality across the spectrumOne can “reduce inequality” by elevating those lower down or holding back those who are on topOnly the as long as mer is of interestLevels of inequality are exceptionally highHigh inequality causes economic in addition to social harmSocial policies can combat inequalityWe need research to identify effective policies, programs, in addition to practicesInequality is the ProblemLevels of inequality are exceptionally highHigh inequality causes economic in addition to social harmSocial policies can combat inequalityWe need research to identify effective policies, programs, in addition to practicesInequality is the Problem

Inequality in the Headlines Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally HighIncome inequality has exp in addition to ed dramaticallySOURCES: PIKETTY & SAEZ, 2009 KRUGMAN, 2007 NOAH, 2012

Income inequality has exp in addition to ed dramaticallyEffects of inequality on child outcomes have grownReardon: Achievement gap between 10th & 90th income percentiles now larger than black-white gap Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally HighCompared to other countries, U.S. per as long as mance seems mediocreAchievement in addition to attainment in the middle of the packMediocre averages obscure large inequalitiesGeographic, economic, in addition to race/ethnic differences Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally HighAverage 2011 TIMSS Scores, Grade 4 MathSource: Provasnik et al. (2012)15

Average 2011 TIMSS Scores, Grade 4 MathSource: Provasnik et al. (2012)16Average 2011 TIMSS Scores, Grade 4 MathSource: Provasnik et al. (2012)17Average 2011 TIMSS Scores, Grade 4 MathSource: Provasnik et al. (2012)18

About 42% of U.S. young people earn college degrees (A.A. or B.A.)Once the highest proportion in the world, the U.S. is now 14thBut this obscures inequality54% in MA, 38% in CA, 29% in ARMA would be 1st in the world, AR would be 28th!Also large gaps by SES, race/ethnicity Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally High“Once a Leader, U.S. Lags in College Degrees”US: Below-average per as long as mance, highest inequalityUS: A high school dropout whose parents dropped out is 10 times more likely to have low literacy than a graduate whose parents also graduatedTwice the international average gap Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally HighWhether our gaze is international or historical, inequality in the US is exceptionally highOECD study of adult literacySpotlight on education, the gateway to mobility In 2001, I predicted that black-white inequality would decline while socioeconomic inequality would persistIn fact, black-white inequality has made little progress in addition to socioeconomic inequality has gotten worse Levels of Inequality are Exceptionally HighHigh inequality is getting worse, not better

Trends in Educational InequalitySource: Digest of Educational Statistics 2012, Table 9.Percentage Point DifferenceBlack-White Gap in High School in addition to College Completion, 1970-2010Trends in Educational InequalitySource: Digest of Educational Statistics 2013, Table 222.85.NAEP Score GapNAEP Trends in Math at Age 13Black-white gaps in high school completion in addition to college enrollment have narrowed, but the gap in college completion has widenedRecent declines in racial achievement gaps have not made up as long as earlier expansion of gapsSocioeconomic gaps have remained steady in some areas (attainment) in addition to gotten worse in others (test scores)Trends in Educational InequalitySummary of Recent Trends

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Levels of inequality are exceptionally highHigh inequality causes economic in addition to social harmSocial policies can combat inequalityWe need research to identify effective policies, programs, in addition to practicesInequality is the ProblemSome inequality may be necessary to motivate per as long as manceCountries with more inequality tend to have lower productivityRecent S&P study: US inequality causes slower growth Comparative in addition to US historical evidenceInequality is HarmfulIs inequality a drag on productivity“Purely from an economic perspective – leaving aside important questions of social equity – opportunity is being lost on a large scale” (Belfield & Levin, 2012).“Inequality is the enemy of economic growth” (Reich, 2013).Inequality is HarmfulUnequal opportunity means wasted talent

Unequal education means schooling fails to provide a common socialization experienceIn an unequal society, social networks are fragmented rather than integratedAs education becomes stratified by social origins, mobility prospects declineInequality is HarmfulInequality is also socially divisiveHow much harm Still debatedNo question that young people born into social in addition to economic disadvantage have fewer opportunitiesLevels of inequality are exceptionally highHigh inequality causes economic in addition to social harmSocial policies can combat inequalityWe need research to identify effective policies, programs, in addition to practicesInequality is the ProblemPiketty: Returns to capital exceed income growthPolicy Can Address InequalityIn today’s rhetoric, inequality seems inevitableYet inequality also responds to institutionsInstitutions are amenable to policy

Focus on young people (ages 5 to 25)In the long run, research we support will lead to actionBuild, underst in addition to , test, in addition to improve programs, policies, in addition to practicesNo single study will be trans as long as mativeResults will accumulate to guide policy in addition to practiceSupport as long as tools that benefit many researchersInterdisciplinary portfolio Need as long as Research on Reducing InequalityHallmarks of our approachWe seek researchers to answer this call

Granato, Heather Group Editor

Granato, Heather is from United States and they belong to Natural Products Insider and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Granato, Heather deal with the subjects like Government Regulatory Agencies; Health and Wellness; Manufacturing; Vitamins and Dietary Supplements

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