Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, v
Saxby, Mike, Group Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. How Infections Occur
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Droplet Contact Also known as the respiratory route, it is a typical mode of transmission among many infectious agents. If an infected person coughs or sneezes on another person the microorganisms, suspended in warm, moist droplets, may enter the body through the nose, mouth or eye surfaces. Diseases that are commonly spread by coughing or sneezing include (at least): Bacterial Meningitis Chickenpox Common cold Influenza Mumps Strep throat Tuberculosis Measles Rubella Whooping cough Direct contact is rare in this route, as long as humans at least. More common are the indirect routes; foodstuffs or water become contaminated (by people not washing their h in addition to s be as long as e preparing food, or untreated sewage being released into a drinking water supply) in addition to the people who eat in addition to drink them become infected. In developing countries most sewage is discharged into the environment or on cropl in addition to as of 2006; even in developed countries there are periodic system failures resulting in a sanitary sewer overflow. This is the typical mode of transmission as long as the infectious agents of (at least): Cholera Hepatitis A Polio Rotavirus Salmonella
This refers to any disease that can be caught during sexual activity with another person, including vaginal or anal sex or (less commonly) through oral sex. Transmission is either directly between surfaces in contact during intercourse (the usual route as long as bacterial infections in addition to those infections causing sores) or from secretions (semen or the fluid secreted by the excited female) which carry infectious agents that get into the partner’s blood stream through tiny tears in the penis, vagina or rectum (this is a more usual route as long as viruses). Some diseases transmissible by the sexual route include (at least): HIV/AIDS Chlamydia Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis B Syphilis Herpes Diseases that can be transmitted by direct contact are called contagious . These diseases can also be transmitted by sharing a towel (where the towel is rubbed vigorously on both bodies) or items of clothing in close contact with the body (socks, as long as example) if they are not washed thoroughly between uses. For this reason, contagious diseases often break out in schools, where towels are shared in addition to personal items of clothing accidentally swapped in the changing rooms. Some diseases that are transmissible by direct contact include: Athlete’s foot Impetigo Syphilis (on rare occasions, if an uninfected person touches a chancre) Warts A vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but that transmits infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. Examples include mosquitoes, deer ticks, animal bites, etc.
Is It Contagious Non-infectious diseases (also called Non-communicable diseases ) are those diseases that are not caused by a pathogen in addition to cannot be shared from one person to another. Non-infectious diseases may be caused by either the environment, nutritional deficiencies, lifestyle choices, or genetic inheritances. Unlike infectious diseases, non-infectious diseases are not communicable or contagious, although some kinds can be passed down genetically to the children of a carrier. Historically, infectious diseases were the main cause of death in the world in addition to , indeed, in some developing regions this may still be the case. With the development of antibiotics in addition to vaccination programs, infectious disease is no longer the leading cause of death in the western world. Non-infectious disease is now responsible as long as the leading causes of death in both developed in addition to some developing countries.
Causes of non-infectious disease are categorized into genetically inherited diseases in addition to environmental diseases. Non-infectious diseases that are not genetic disorders are environmental diseases, although many diseases are affected by both genetic in addition to environmental factors. Genetic disorders are caused by errors in genetic in as long as mation that produce diseases in the affected people. These errors may include: A change in the chromosome numbers, such as Down syndrome A defect in a single gene caused by mutation, such as Cystic Fibrosis. Environmental disease is a very broad category. It includes avoidable in addition to unavoidable conditions caused by external factors, such as sunlight, food, pollution, in addition to lifestyle choices. The diseases of affluence are non-infectious diseases with environmental causes. Examples include: Many types of cardiovascular disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by smoking tobacco Type 2 Diabetes Malnutrition caused by too little food, or eating the wrong kinds of food (e.g. scurvy from lack of Vitamin C) Skin cancer caused by radiation from the sun
Cancer is a non-infectious disease that affects millions of people. The National Cancer Institute reports the most common cancer type as nonmelanoma skin cancer, with about one million cases a year. Lung cancer is the second-most common, with about 219,440 new cases in addition to 159,390 deaths. Other common cancers include bladder, breast, leukemia, pancreatic, prostate, thyroid, colorectal, endometrial in addition to kidney cancer. Mayo Clinic reports heart disease, a non-infectious disease, as the number-one killer in the United States. Heart or cardiovascular disease refers to a variety of conditions that involve the circulatory system. Heart attacks, strokes, chest pain, tachycardia, high cholesterol, heart valve disease, high blood pressure, palpitations in addition to congenital heart disease are some of the non-infectious heart diseases. The National Kidney Foundation reports chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a non-infectious disease that affects about 26 million Americans. CKD results when the kidneys are no longer able to remove wastes from the body. Diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, lupus, kidney stones in addition to polycystic kidney disease may hinder the kidneys’ ability to process in addition to remove wastes.
Mental disease covers a broad range of non-infectious diseases that affects people of all ages. Autism, panic attacks, narcolepsy, manic-depressive disorder, depression, bulimia nervosa, bipolar disorder in addition to Asperger’s syndrome are examples of non-infectious mental diseases. Non-infectious bone diseases include osteoporosis, Paget’s disease in addition to osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteoporosis indicates a low bone mass, fragile bones, in addition to high risk of bone fractures. Paget’s disease presents as bones that grow larger in addition to weaker than normal bones. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a non-infectious genetic disorder. OI symptoms include bones that break easily. Non-infectious muscle in addition to joint diseases include fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis in addition to gout. Fibromyalgia is a chronic non-infectious disease identified as pain in addition to tender points in soft tissue, muscles in addition to joints throughout the body. Merck Manual, an online medical library, reports rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects about one percent of the world’s population. RA symptoms range from mild occasional joint pain to severe in addition to debilitating pain. Gout is a non-infectious disease caused by high levels of uric acid in the joints in addition to manifests as sudden severe joint pain, possibly accompanied by fever in addition to feeling ill.
When carbohydrates are eaten, they get converted to glucose which is blood sugar. To stabilize blood sugar levels, the pancreas releases insulin. In people that have diabetes, a noninfectious disease, the pancreas does not release insulin properly or at all in the most severe cases. This can cause kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage in addition to heart problems.
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