Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson Infectious Disease Terms Normal Micro flora & its importance Koch’s Postulates Modifications to Koch’s Postulates

Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson Infectious Disease Terms Normal Micro flora & its importance Koch’s Postulates Modifications to Koch’s Postulates www.phwiki.com

Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson Infectious Disease Terms Normal Micro flora & its importance Koch’s Postulates Modifications to Koch’s Postulates

Saxby, Mike, Group Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson Infectious Disease Terms Epidemiology Epidemic Endemic P in addition to emic Pathogen Opportunist Nosocomial virulence Normal Micro flora & its importance Prevent the growth of pathogens Stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that cross-react with invading pathogens Aid in digestion of cellulose in ruminants. Produce essential nutrients

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Koch’s Postulates The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease; The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host in addition to grown in pure culture; The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is introduced into a healthy but susceptible organism. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal in addition to be shown to be the original organism. Modifications to Koch’s Postulates Some infectious agents cannot be cultured e.g. prions Some pathogens have non-virulent strains whose presence does not link them to a disease. E.g. non encapsulated Diplococcus pneumoniae Types of Pathogens Bacteria Gram positive Gram negative Acid-Fast e.g. Mycobacteria Spherical described as cocci Rod shaped described as bacilli

Gram Positives Unique Features Thick peptidoglycan wall No periplasmic space No outer membrane (capsule) E.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium tetani Gram Positive wall Gram Negatives Unique features Thin peptidoglycan wall Has periplasmic space containing different degradative enzymes such as deoxyribonucleases, -lactamases in addition to proteases Outer membrane containing lipid A, an endotoxin E.g. Neisseria, Salmonella typhi, E. coli, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae

Gram Negative wall Types of pathogens Parasites (Eukaryotic Pathogen) Fungi e.g. C in addition to ida, Aspergillus Protozoa e.g. Plasmodium, Schistosoma Worms e.g. Ascaris, Taenia Types of pathogens Viruses Are pieces of DNA or RNA surrounded by protein coat. The may be Encapsulated e.g. HIV, HBV, measles, mumps, influenza, rabies Non-encapsulated e.g.adenoviruses, HPV, Polio

Viruses Modes of transmission Direct contact e.g. touching, h in addition to shaking, or sexual intercourse Indirect contact e.g. food, water or droplets in air; Animal vectors e.g. insect bites in malaria, plague in addition to oncho, dog bite in rabies Pathogenesis Sequence of activities Transmission of causative agent to susceptible host; Adherence of the agent to a target tissue; Colonization in addition to invasion; Damage to host by toxins or other mechanisms; Exit from host; Survival outside host long enough as long as step 1 to occur.

Virulent Factors For all pathogens there is an infective dose in addition to a lethal dose. Virulent factors that confer pathogenicity include; Pili that facilitate attachment; Capsules that interfere with phagocytosis Exotoxins Endotoxins Proteases that break down antibodies Ability to vary antigens to evade antibodies Bacterial Pathogenesis Toxin production. Toxins fall into two categories; exotoxins in addition to endotoxins. Invasiveness, where bacteria grow to large numbers locally in addition to produce enzymes that damage host tissues. exotoxins Heat labile (60-100 degrees as long as 30 mins) proteins produced in addition to released by both gram positive in addition to gram negative bacteria. Produced by bacteria such as Clostridium (neurotoxins) in addition to Bacillus (enterotoxin) (+) in addition to E. coli in addition to Vibrio (enterotoxin) (-)

endotoxins Are heat stable (100 degrees as long as 1 hr) lipopolysaccharide produced only by gram –ve bacteria. They remain attached to cell wall. Cause fever in addition to shock in addition to is of lower toxicity compared to exotoxins. Produced by bacteria such as Salmonella cholera Causative Agent: Vibrio cholerae Symptoms: severe diarrhoea up to 20 liters a day of “rice water stool”, vomiting, muscle cramps caused by loss fluid in addition to electrolytes. Pathogenesis: Vibrio adheres to the small intestinal lining, multiply in addition to produce the enterotoxin choleragen which causes the accumulation of cAMP. An increased secretion of water in addition to electrolyte from the cells results Cholera 4. Epidemiology: Feacally contaminated water, crabs in addition to vegetables fertilized with human faeces. Has been eradicated most developed countries but a new strain discovered in 1992 is threatening another p in addition to emic.

Cholera 5. Incubation period: 12-48 hours 6. Lab diagnosis: Microscopy, culture of sample from faeces or vomit. 7. Prevention: Purification of water, washing of h in addition to s. 8. Treatment: administration of solution of glucose in addition to electrolyte orally or intravenously; tetracycline antibiotic orally malaria Causative Agent: Plasmodium (4 species) Symptoms (Clinical features): fever, chills, anaemia, headache, nausea, shivering, convulsions (esp. in under 5 yr olds) enlarged spleen. Pathogenesis: site of action of pathogen include: liver, RBC, brain. The vector, female Anopheles mosquito, transfer pathogen during feeding. malaria 4. Epidemiology: Endemic in 91 tropical in addition to subtropical countries. Invade the liver 1st in addition to move to reproduce in RBCs resulting in their rupture in addition to the associated chills. 5. Incubation Period: 1 – 2 weeks. 6. Lab diagnosis: Microscopy.

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An Infected RBC Malaria – Prevention Reduce the number of mosquitoes; destruction of larvae in addition to adult mosquitoes by biological in addition to chemical control methods Avoid being bitten; protective clothing in addition to creams, treated bed nets Use of drugs to prevent infection; chemoprophylaxis Malaria -Treatment Combination therapy: Artesunate Amodiaquine

Tuberculosis Pathogen: M. tuberculosis (pulmonary TB); M. bovis(GI TB) Transmission: airborne droplets (NB MTB is dessication resistant in addition to survives in dried sputum); unpasteurized milk. Clinical features: prolonged coughing sometimes with bloody sputum, shortness of breath, fever, sweating , weight loss Tuberculosis 4. No toxin production. Pathogenicty is by invasiveness that produce characteristic lesions in the lungs. 5. Epidemiology: pathogen triggers acute inflammatory response + as long as ms tubercle – giant cells containing MTB in addition to surrounded by epithelial cells. Tubercles heals by fibrosis in addition to calcification. Can desseminate via bloodstream to other internal organs

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