INFLUENZA VIRUS INFLUENZA VIRUS CDC WEBSITE http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/f

INFLUENZA VIRUS INFLUENZA VIRUS CDC WEBSITE http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/f www.phwiki.com

INFLUENZA VIRUS INFLUENZA VIRUS CDC WEBSITE http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/f

Pallack, Becky, High School Sports Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal INFLUENZA VIRUS INFLUENZA VIRUS CDC WEBSITE http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/fluinfo.htm 2002 ‘FLU’ True influenza influenza virus A or influenza virus B (or influenza virus C infections – much milder) Febrile respiratory disease with systemic symptoms caused by a variety of other organisms often called ‘flu’ South Carolina 1996-1997 DHEC bulletin http://www.state.sc.us/dhec/LAB/labbu017.htm no virus influenza A influenza B CULTURE RESULTS malathia influenzae per le stelle

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THE IMPACT OF INFLUENZA PANDEMICS Deaths: THE IMPACT OF INFLUENZA 1972-1994 (19 influenza seasons) >20,000 US deaths in 11 seasons >40,000 US deaths in 6 of these many more hospitalizations (~110,000 per year) THE IMPACT OF INFLUENZA recently some increase in morbidity in addition to mortality – possible factors more elderly people CF patients live longer more high risk neonates more immunosuppressed patients

ORTHOMYXOVIRUSES http://www.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/stannard/fluvirus.html pleomorphic influenza types A,B,C febrile, respiratory illness with systemic symptoms ORTHOMYXOVIRUSES type A, B, C : NP, M1 protein sub-types: HA or NA protein TRANSMISSION AEROSOL 100,000 TO 1,000,000 VIRIONS PER DROPLET 18-72 HR INCUBATION SHEDDING

NORMAL TRACHEAL MUCOSA 3 DAYS POST-INFECTION 7 DAYS POST-INFECTION Lycke in addition to Norrby Textbook of Medical Virology 1983 DECREASED CLEARANCE RISK BACTERIAL INFECTION VIREMIA RARE Lycke in addition to Norrby Textbook of Medical Virology 1983 RECOVERY INTERFERON – SIDE EFFECTS INCLUDE: FEVER, MYALGIA, FATIGUE, MALAISE CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE TISSUE REPAIR CAN TAKE SOME TIME

An immunological diversion INTERFERON INTERFERON timecourse of virus production will vary from virus to virus INTERFERON

INTERFERON INTERFERON INTERFERON

INTERFERON THE VIRUSES ARE COMING! http://www.paulreverehouse.org/midnight.html PAUL REVERE http://www.mfa.org/collections/one-hour/6.htm TYPES OF INTERFERON TYPE I Interferon-alpha (leukocyte interferon, about 20 related proteins) – leukocytes, etc Interferon-beta (fibroblast interferon) – fibroblasts, epithelial cells, etc TYPE II Interferon-gamma (immune interferon) – certain activated T-cells, NK cells INDUCTION OF INTERFERON interferon-alpha in addition to interferon-beta – viral infection (especially RNA viruses), double str in addition to ed RNA, certain bacterial components – strong anti-viral properties interferon-gamma – antigens, mitogenic stimulation lymphocytes

INTERFERON induce various proteins in target cells many consequences, not all fully understood INTERFERON-ALPHA AND INTERFERON-BETA interferon-alpha, interferon-beta interferon receptor induction of 2’5’oligo A synthase induction of a protein kinase 2’5’oligo A induction of ribonuclease L activated ribonuclease L ATP ds RNA ds RNA activated protein kinase activated 2’5’oligo A synthase ATP 2’5’oligo A mRNA degraded phosphorylated initiation factor (eIF-2) inhibition of protein synthesis

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interferons only made when needed OTHER EFFECTS OF INTERFERONS ALL TYPES INCREASE MHC I EXPRESSION CYTOTOXIC T-CELLS ACTIVATE NK CELLS CAN KILL VIRALLY INFECTED CELLS OTHER EFFECTS OF INTERFERONS INTERFERON-GAMMA INCREASES MHC II EXPRESSION ON APC HELPER T-CELLS INCREASES ANTIVIRAL POTENTIAL OF MACROPHAGES INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC

THERAPEUTIC USES OF INTERFERONS ANTI-VIRAL e.g. interferon-alpha is currently approved as long as certain cases of acute in addition to chronic HCV in addition to chronic HBV MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION interferon-gamma has been tried as long as e.g. lepromatous leprosy, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis ANTI-TUMOR have been used in e.g. melanoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma, CML MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS interferon-beta Viral response to host immune system Viruses may : block interferon binding inhibit function of interferon-induced proteins inhibit NK function interfere with MHC I or MHC II expression block complement activation inhibit apoptosis etc! SIDE EFFECTS OF INTERFERONS FEVER MALAISE FATIGUE MUSCLE PAINS

TYPE A ++++ yes yes yes shift, drift yes sensitive sensitive 2 severity of illness animal reservoir human p in addition to emics human epidemics antigenic changes segmented genome amantadine, rimantidine zanamivir surface glycoproteins TYPE B ++ no no yes drift yes no effect sensitive 2 TYPE C + no no no (sporadic) drift yes no effect (1) END live vaccine development adapted from Treanor JJ Infect. Med. 15:714

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