Internet Failures Example: Taiwan earthquake incident How reliable the Internet is Basic Idea Dataset as long as Evaluation

Internet Failures Example: Taiwan earthquake incident How reliable the Internet is Basic Idea Dataset as long as Evaluation www.phwiki.com

Internet Failures Example: Taiwan earthquake incident How reliable the Internet is Basic Idea Dataset as long as Evaluation

Erickson, Tom, General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Evaluating Potential Routing Diversity as long as Internet Failure Recovery Chengchen Hu, +Kai Chen, +Yan Chen, Bin Liu Tsinghua University, +Northwestern University Internet Failures Failure is part of everyday life in IP networks e.g., 675,000 excavation accidents in 2004 [Common Ground Alliance] Network cable cuts every few days Real-world emergencies or disasters can lead to substantial Internet disruption Earthquakes Storms Terrorist incident: 9.11 event Example: Taiwan earthquake incident Large earthquakes hit south of Taiwan on 26 December 2006 Only two of nine cross-sea cables not affected There are abundant physical level connectivity there, but the it took too long as long as ISPs to find them in addition to use them. Page figures cited from “Aftershocks from the Taiwan Earthquakes: Shaking up Internet transit in Asia, NANOG42”

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How reliable the Internet is Internet is not as reliable as people expected! [Wu, CoNEXT’07] 32% ASes are vulnerable to a single critical customer-provider link cut 93.7% Tier-1 ISP’s single-homed customers are lost from the peered ISP due to Tier-1 depeering Our question: can we find more resources to increase the Internet reliability especially when Internet emergency happens Basic Idea Two places where we can find more routing diversities: Internet eXchange Points (IXPs) Co-location where multiple ASes exchange their traffic Participant ASes in an IXP may not be connected via BGP Internet valley-free routing policy AS relationships: customer-provider, peering, sibling Peering relaxation (PR): allow one AS to carry traffic from the other to its provider Mentioned in [Wu, CoNEXT’07], but without evaluation Our main focus: How much can we gain from these two potential resources, i.e., IXP in addition to PR Dataset as long as Evaluation Most complete AS topology graph BGP data Route Views, RIPE/RIS, Abilene, CERNET BGP View P2P traceroute Traceroute data from 992, 000 IPs in over 3, 700 ASes In total, 120K AS links with AS relationships http://aqualab.cs.northwestern.edu/projects/SidewalkEnds.html [Chen et al, CoNEXT’09] IXP data PCH + Peeringdb + Euro-IX (~200 IXPs) 3468 participant ASes

Failure Models Tier-1 depeering Real example: Cogent in addition to Level3 depeering Tier-1 provider-customer link teardown Reported in NANOG as long as um Mixed types of link breakdown 9.11 event, Taiwan earthquakes, 2003 Northeast blackout Evaluation Metrics Recovery Ratio of recovered AS pairs versus total of affected AS pairs Path Diversity of increased link-disjoint AS paths between affected AS pairs Shifted Path of link-disjoint AS paths shifted onto a normal link after we use IXP or PR resources Results: Tier-1 Depeering 36 experiments as long as 9 Tier-1 ASes Recovery ratio: most of the lost AS pairs can be recovered

Results: Tier-1 Depeering Path diversity: multiple AS paths between lost AS pairs Results: Tier-1 Depeering Shifted path On average, 3.75 ~ 17.2 as long as all 36 experiments Moderate traffic load shifted onto the unaffected links Economic model B pays to A as long as recovery Business model Risk alliance (like airlines): price is determined be as long as eh in addition to pay on b in addition to width & duration or bits (95 percentile)

Communication channel Search as long as peers Have direct connections to peers Search as long as co-located ASes in the same IXP ASes are connected by switches in modern IXPs Messages are broadcasted with the help of the switches Message confidentiality with public key crypto Automatic communication Query message (failed AS) who connected to specific destination ASes Reply message (surviving AS) I can provide BW1 b in addition to width to the destination AS ACK (failed AS) I would like buy BW2 (<=BW1) Set up BGP sessions Withdraw BGP sessions Check available connectivity & b in addition to width Connectivity traceroute Available b in addition to width Maximum capacity is already known Estimate the amount which has been used Y. Zhang, M. Roughan, N. Duffield, in addition to A. Greenberg, “Fast Accurate Computation of Large-Scale IP Traffic Matrices from Link Loads,” ACM SIGMETRICS, 2003. Subtract Optimal selection of helper ISPs From a single victim ISP perspective Buy transit from a minimal number of ASes Recover all the (prioritized) traffic Least cost Selection heuristic Lost connectivity to {Di}, with b in addition to width dem in addition to {Bi} is how much b in addition to width AS j could provide to Di; Selection heuristic Lost connectivity to {Di}, with b in addition to width dem in addition to {Bi} Score each (helper) AS j with Select the AS with largest score (select the one with lowest price if same score) 3 2.3 5 2.1 Selection heuristic Update Lost connectivity to {Di}, with b in addition to width dem in addition to {Bi} updated Selection heuristic rescore in addition to select Lost connectivity to {Di}, with b in addition to width dem in addition to {Bi} 1 0.3 0.1 0 Summary First work to evaluate the potential routing diversity via IXP in addition to PR with the most complete AS topology graph. 40%-80% of affected AS pairs can be recovered via IXP in addition to PR with multiple paths in addition to moderate shifted paths. Point out a new venue as long as Internet failure recovery. Possible in addition to practical mechanisms to utilize potential routing diversity. Look as long as ward to feedback in addition to collaborations from IXP/ISPs!

Thank you! Q&A Backup Failure Models Tier-1 depeering Real example: Cogent in addition to Level3 depeering Tier-1 provider-customer link teardown Reported in NANOG as long as um Mixed types of link breakdown 9.11 event, Taiwan earthquakes, 2003 Northeast blackout

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Results: Tier-1 provider-customer links teardown Recovery ratio Path diversity 4.64 as long as 10 Tier-1 provider-customer links teardown 4.54 as long as 20 Tier-1 provider-customer links teardown Shifted path The average number of shifted path when 10, 20 in addition to 30 links are damaged are 3.4, 4.0 in addition to 4.2, respectively. Results: Mixed types of links breakdown Taiwan earthquake, 9 big victim ASes Recovery ratio Results: Mixed types of links breakdown Path diversity

Results: Mixed types of links breakdown Shifted path System framework Adding an Emergency Recovery (ER) module in a router’s control plane Setting up the communications between ER in addition to the Intra-TE Resource Management modules. Building communication channel An example

Optimal selection of ISPs to help From global view Min. shift path or tuned AS-links st. recover all the (prioritized) traffic we could or Max. recovery ratio st. shift path or tuned AS-links From a single ISP Min. cost as long as the ISP st. recover all the (prioritized) traffic we could or Max. recovery ratio st. cost as long as the ISP Selection heuristic Lost connectivity to {Di}, with b in addition to width dem in addition to {Bi} is how much b in addition to width AS j could provide to Di; Score each (helper) AS j with Select the helper AS with largest score (select the one with lowest price if same score) Update {Di} by deleting the recovered AS Update {Bi} by subtracting the recovered b in addition to width rescore in addition to select the next helper AS Iteration till all are recovered

Erickson, Tom General Manager

Erickson, Tom is from United States and they belong to KJZA-FM and they are from  Prescott, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Erickson, Tom deal with the subjects like Jazz; Music

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