Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Illinois Institute of Technology

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p.  of 63 Illinois Institute of Technology www.phwiki.com

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Illinois Institute of Technology

Berg, Tom, Features Staff Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Illinois Institute of Technology PHYSICS 561 RADIATION BIOPHYSICS Course Introduction: Electromagnetic Radiation; Radioactivity I ANDREW HOWARD 3 June 2014 Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Radiation Biophysics: Introduction What we’re trying to do: provide you with an underst in addition to ing of what happens when ionizing radiation interacts with biological tissue. Most of you are in the Health Physics curriculum: there, you’re learning about ionizing radiation how it is produced what it is used as long as how to deliver it how to quantify it how to minimize exposure of people in addition to things to it. Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Introduction (continued) You have also learned about the biological effects of radiation in other courses. In this course the emphasis is on the biological effects, both harmful in addition to beneficial, of radiation. But to put those biological issues in context: We’ll discuss radiation physics in addition to radiation chemistry. We won’t spend a lot of time on those subjects: you’ve dealt with those subjects in other courses.

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Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Who is your instructor I am primarily in the biology faculty within the Biological in addition to Chemical Sciences Department at IIT. But my secondary appointment is in the physics department, in addition to my graduate degree is in physics, so I’m reasonably familiar with physics in addition to chemistry as well as biology. Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Am I qualified to teach this I’m a crystallographer: I use X-ray diffraction to study the 3-D structures of large biomolecules I am not a health physicist by specialization My research is often affected by concerns as long as the radiation safety of my experiments. I’m a consumer of rad. biophysics knowledge. I postdoc’d in toxicology in a DOE lab: mechanistic studies stuck with me Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Why I may be a bit incoherent a few times this summer http://www.renfair.com/bristol/

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 How will this course work Live meetings: Tuesday in addition to Thursday, 10 am- 12:50pm at IIT from 3 June through 24 July (plus an external final), in Stuart Building Room 213 Internet: 6-18 hours behind. Internet students are welcome to visit the live section, which currently has no enrollees Primarily lectures, but with discussion Internet students: Communicate with one another in addition to with me via the discussion board in addition to e-mail It’s the only way I’m going to get to know you. Be brazen! Be daring! Special schedule, early July I will be attending a wedding in Ox as long as d UK over Independence Day weekend Rescheduled classes: Class on Tuesday 1 July Monday 30 June Class on Thursday 3 July Tuesday 1 July Class on Tuesday 8 July Thursday 10 July Class on Thursday 8 July Friday 11 July Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Homework We will start every class except this one by going over the homework assignment. The homework is generally due at 11:59 p.m. on the Friday or Monday, 3-5 days after class, so we won’t answer the homework questions in class, but we will discuss how the problems work, in addition to if there are items that require clarification we’ll provide them then. It’s okay to turn assignments in late.

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Course Plans (continued) 2 midterms in addition to a final Midterms 19-20 June, 2-4 July Final 24-26 July All exams are closed-book, closed-notes, apart from a help-sheet that I will provide. You may use a calculator, but not a programmable All exams will be conducted outside of class sessions: we need all the class time as long as content Detailed schedule is on the course Blackboard site Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Course Sources Edward L. Alpen, Radiation Biophysics, 2nd Ed.: San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. 520 pp , cloth. ISBN-10 0120530856. We’ll work closely from textbook except in our discussion of radiation chemistry (chapter 6) in addition to two lectures at the end of the course on biochemistry, hormesis, in addition to some other supplementary topics The textbook is not a required purchase; I’ll cover most of what is in the book Supplemental readings: HTML, books, journal articles Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Using Blackboard Portal to online lectures Posting site as long as HTML in addition to PowerPoint lecture materials Exam keys will be emailed to you Posting site as long as peer-reviewed literature Discussion board: Use it! Your opportunity to mull over the material Chance to get to know your classmates Content-related participation does get graded

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Inconsistencies It’s possible that you’ll see an inconsistency between the assignments as posted on the Assignments section on Blackboard in addition to the overall Assignments webpage. Which is authoritative Answer: the Assignments section on Blackboard And while we’re on the subject: Submit your answers to the Blackboard Assignments page too! Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 History of radiation biophysics I Early characterizers of the properties of X-rays in addition to radioactivity: Wilhelm Röntgen: X-rays, 1895 Becquerel: radioactivity Ruther as long as d: radioactive chain decay The Curies: radium, polonium Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 History II Edison’s fluoroscope: 1896 Don’t talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them. -T.A.E., 1903 However: it was his employees, not Edison, who got sick!

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Radiation in addition to Medicine: 1895 First medically observable deleterious effect from X-rays was recorded less than six months after Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays. So the history of radiation biophysics goes back almost as far as the history of X-rays Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Quantities, Units, in addition to Definitions The world of radiation research has gone through a major change in the units that it uses to express quantities. As recently as the 1970’s when I was learning radiation quantitation, the traditional units as long as activity, dose, energy imparted, in addition to equivalent dose were still in common use. In this course we will use the more modern units except in dealing with older research papers. Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Quantities, Units, Definitions

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Additional Quantities: Equivalent Dose Effects of a dose depend on how much energy is deposited per unit mass in addition to on how influential that energy is in the medium: HT,R = DRWT,R (DR=dose, WT,R= weight factor) as long as tissue T, radiation type R. If R is 60Co photons, WR=1 (reference type) Unit: Sievert (1 J/kg) Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Honorees Louis H. Gray (1905-65) Rolf M. Sievert (1896-1966) Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 RBE in addition to Kerma RBE (relative biological effectiveness): describes weight factors as long as specific biological endpoints (e.g. carcinogenesis) as well as specific radiation types. Often used in context of radiation-induced tumors in addition to other long-term problems. Kerma: Kinetic Energy Released to the Medium Let DEK =initial kinetic energy of all charged particles liberated. Then Kerma K = DEK / Dm Dimensions of dose (book says energy—that’s wrong) Units: Gy or rad.

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Fluences in addition to Flux Densities Let DN = particles entering a sphere with cross sectional area Da (total area a = 4pr2) Particles enter during time interval Dt —Then— Particle fluence = F = DN / Da Particle flux density = f = DF / Dt Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Fluence in addition to Flux Visuals Area through which particles enter = Da Total Surface area a = 4pr2 DN particles enter in time Dt Particle fluence F = DN/Da Flux Density = f = DF/Dt Da DN Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Energy Fluence, Flux Density Let DEf = sum of energy (exclusive of rest energy) of all particles entering sphere of cross-sectional area Da Energy fluence: Y = DEf /Da Energy flux density: y = DY/Dt

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Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Linear Energy Transfer (LET) LET defined as dEL/dl, where dEL is the energy locally imparted to the medium over the length interval dl. Dimensions: Energy / length; units: J/m restricted range stopping power: don’t look as long as energy deposited far from path. Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 What does LET depend on Nature of radiation Alpha particles can be stopped by paper Betas can be stopped by aluminum Photons can get through almost anything Nature of medium (density, chemistry) Energy of radiation Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 LET’s dependence on energy Dependence on energy manifests itself often in subtle ways: e.g. more absorption near absorption edges.

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Charged Particle Equilibrium CPE exists at a point p centered in a volume V if each charged particle carrying a certain energy out of V is replaced by another identical charged particle carrying the same energy into V. If CPE exists, then dose = kerma. Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Radioactivity Measurements Let dP be the probability that a specific nucleus will undergo decay during time dt. Decay constant of a nuclide in a particular energy state is l = dP/dt. Half-time or half-life: time required as long as half of starting particles to undergone transitions. T1/2= (ln 2) / l (not ln (2/ l), as the book claims) Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Activity Let dN = expectation value (most likely number) of nuclear transitions in time dt. Then activity A = dN/dt = -lN (note that the minus sign is just keeping track of disappearance rather than appearance) If you don’t underst in addition to that, you will fail the Health Physics Comprehensive Exam! Dimensions: time-1 Units: 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration /sec Old unit: Curie: 3.7 1010 s-1

Intro; EM Radiation; Radioactivity p. of 63 Charting Decay Schemes We can sometimes find multiple pathways, each with multiple steps, as with 74As here (this is fig. 3.4, p. 37, in Alpen)

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