Introduction Alternates Major differences LHC/LC Democratic Production ee->Z->HZ

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Introduction Alternates Major differences LHC/LC Democratic Production ee->Z->HZ

Holbrook, Stett, Food Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal F. Richard Future colliders: physics motivations CERN Summer Student Lecture Programme F. Richard LAL/Orsay F. Richard Introduction Particle physics requires long term planning LHC has taken >20 years (reminder: first workshop on LHC was 1984 ) Satellite expts also very long: Planck Surveyor (CMB), just launched, planned since 1992 Since a long time there is an international consensus that the next large HEP machine should be an e+e- linear collider LC Basic questions: Which type of linear collider For which physics Why do we need a machine beyond LHC F. Richard The st in addition to ard view BSM From LEP/SLC/TeVatron compelling arguments (precision measurements PM) to expect a light Higgs within SM or its SUSY extension MSSM A LC is ideal to study the properties of a light Higgs MSSM passes remarkably PM offering full calculability In particular it allows to extrapolate the weak/em/strong couplings to an unification scale without very large quantum corrections to the Higgs mass It is fair to say that the model is not predictive on flavours in particular fermion masses hierarchies in addition to CP violation A basic input to decide the energy of a LC is missing: what are the masses of the lightest SUSY particles (charginos, neutralinos, sleptons) best studied at LC

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F. Richard Alternates Other views have emerged allowing as long as very different pictures: Composite Higgs in addition to even Higgless They often are linked to extra dimensions Eminent role of top physics in this view: it could also be composite like the Higgs In the language of extra dimensions Kaluza Klein bosons couple preferentially to Higgs in addition to top quarks generating large deviations in top couplings A LC measuring top in addition to Higgs couplings with excellent accuracies is ideally well suited to observe these effects F. Richard Major differences LHC/LC Accurate luminosity + absence of trigger allows very clean unbiased determination of cross sections with accuracies well below 1% In a hadron machine with PDF+QCD corrections (as/aem) accuracies ~10% LC with a well defined initial state in addition to energy gives precise masses e.g. Z/W at LEP (also true as long as sparticles) LC has polarised electrons essential to test SU(2)LU(1) see SLC vs LEP

F. Richard Democratic Production All processes have similar cross section HZ the ‘gold plated’ process comes out very cleanly in addition to allows to measure Higgs BR at % Top quarks reconstructed with low background Charginos can be studied in great detail F. Richard ee->Z->HZ The recoil mass technique with Z->µ+µ- gives a very clean signal Works even if H decays into invisible or complex modes ZZH coupling constant determined to 1% In the SM case most BR ratios known 10 times more precisely than at LHC ILD F. Richard Why so precise

F. Richard Top physics LC 1 pb, LHC 1nb but with larger uncertainties Very good s/b at ILC in addition to energy conservation allows to reconstruct modes with a neutrino Mt in addition to Gt with 50 MeV error, 0.4% on cross section Polarisation allows to separate tR in addition to tL (extra dimensions) ILD F. Richard Dark matter & SUSY With LHC+LC it is possible to reach sufficient accuracy on the predicted dark matter to match cosmological observations Do they coincide F. Richard How to go from LEP/SLC to the next LC Not possible to recycle bunches like in circular machines (LEP) in addition to SLC luminosity needs a 10000 increase Use very intense beams with focussing 1000 smaller than SLC (improving emittance) Requires large damping rings (multi-bunch) Large power needed in such machines -> crucial is h=Beampower/Plug power Bunch separation is an issue as long as detectors St in addition to ard way like SLC: klystron+ modulators with low h Two ways: ILC supraconductive linac allowing large bunch time separation CLIC a two beam accelerator with high gradient

F. Richard CLIC in addition to ILC layouts ILC @ 500 GeV CLIC in addition to ILC layouts F. Richard Some parameters ILC in addition to CLIC intend to start at 500 GeV ILC is upgradable, with present technology, at 1 TeV CLIC could reach 3 TeV but with ~constant luminosity (same d) F. Richard CLIC Higher gradient at CLIC -> shorter machine reaching higher energies CLIC has tight requirements on alignment due to wake fields (frequency x10) in addition to beam size at IP CLIC has to demonstrate its feasibility with the test station CTF3 Both machines have in common several critical R&Ds e.g. on positron generation Several methods are developed to generate large flux of photons which are then converted into e+e- These photons can be polarized transmitting their polarisation to positrons

F. Richard Detectors as long as LC Can work with improved per as long as mances /LHC Open trigger with no bias on new physics Higher quality of b/c tagging (low radiation) Reconstruct separately charged in addition to neutral particles (PFLOW) possible with high granularity calorimeters These detectors are challenging: need to reconstruct complex final states with multijets: ttH has 8 jets -> full solid angle coverage essential A major difference with LEP: only one detector can take data at a given time -> concept of push-pull F. Richard High granularity+high density (SiW) µelectronics integrated inside calorimeters Possible with new technology+power pulsing Requires R&D Iron Tungsten JETS F. Richard Detectors as long as ILC (~1000 physicists in addition to Engineers) ILD

F. Richard IR Integration (old location) CHALLENGES: Optimize IR in addition to detector design ensuring efficient push-pull operation Agree on Machine-Detector division of responsibility as long as space, parameters in addition to devices LOI Process is Crucial F. Richard Where are we ILC is developed internationally after a choice of technology by an international panel ITRP 2004 A TDR is expected in 2012 as long as the machine (CLIC not be as long as e 2015) ILC relies on a well developed technology used to build an XFEL in DESY but with higher gradients ~+25% (underway) A baseline design study as long as detectors with detailed interfacing to the machine Will need a demonstrator: ready ~2013 ILC has few options: Gigaz (which requires polarised positrons to cope with the accuracies) in addition to a gg collider F. Richard Option gg collider Laser beams (eV energy) scatter onto incident electron beams ~100 GeV are trans as long as med into photon beams carrying 80% of the electron energy Challenging lasers given the high repetition rate Laser pulses stored in cavities in addition to re-used Higgs couples to two photons in addition to can be directly produced gg -> h/H/A while ee->Zh in addition to HA

F. Richard Set up F. Richard Where do we go Initial view was that we need a LC irrespective of LHC results since LC is optimal as long as a light Higgs 500 GeV sufficient (Higgs+top physics) Time has past, our ideas have evolved on what could be BSM (composite, noHiggs, heavy Higgs) Present idea: – Wait as long as LHC ( in addition to Tevatron) results to decide – Get ready in 2012 (on all essential aspects) to propose a project to the funding authorities F. Richard HEP strategy Connect CLIC in addition to ILC ef as long as ts to avoid duplication in addition to potentially damaging competition Prepare as long as major challenges: technical (industrialisation 16000 SC cavities), financial (~6 B$), political with a worldwide machine (LHC different, ~ITER ) OCDE, ESFRI ILC in addition to CLIC projects intend to address these problems Present uncertainties justify an open scenario However ILC is ready to go while it will take longer to complete the CLIC project

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F. Richard Apologies Other projects are also on the print board s-LHC as long as x10 Luminosity very advanced LHeC to send electrons on protons from LHC µ-collider revived at Fermilab Laser in addition to beam plasma acceleration > 1 GV/m progressing fast but with limited h F. Richard In conclusion The HEP community has developped a consistent in addition to worldwide strategy to construct an e+e- LC A viable project, ILC, can be presented to the governments end of 2012 A final decision (ILC/CLIC) will depend on the physics results from LHC F. Richard Z’

F. Richard CLIC 3 TeV main parameters F. Richard LC 500 GeV Main parameters

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