Introduction Culture des DH Sources juridiques historiques du DIDH 1. La piraterie en haute mer 2. La protection de la liberté religieuse

Introduction Culture des DH Sources juridiques historiques du DIDH 1. La piraterie en haute mer 2. La protection de la liberté religieuse www.phwiki.com

Introduction Culture des DH Sources juridiques historiques du DIDH 1. La piraterie en haute mer 2. La protection de la liberté religieuse

Applegate, Elizabeth, Executive Producer, Prime News has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal François Crépeau Fondements du droit canadien Moot Court – 21 janvier 2013 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Introduction Presumptuous IHRL born with the UDHR, on 10 December 1948 Three sections: Les fondements historiques du droit international des droits de l’homme A “living tradition”: the protection of the most vulnerable in addition to the meaning of citizenship A case study: the rights of migrants Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

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Culture des DH “Philosophie des droits de l’homme” remonte au 18e siècle. Philosophie des Lumières: Avénement du “sujet” Kant: impératif catégorique Constitutions américaine et française Mais, avant la seconde guerre mondiale: Aucune normativité internationale générale Aucune institutionalisation solide Aucun “mouvement des droits de l’homme” Aucune “culture des droits humains” Attendre les chartes au Canada Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Sources juridiques historiques du DIDH Piraterie Liberté religieuse Esclavage Droit de la guerre Droit humanitaire Protection diplomatique Minorités Travailleurs Réfugiés Roosevelt Nürmberg Toutes occidentales (critique de Mutua) Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 1. La piraterie en haute mer Faits accomplis en haute mer « au moyen de violence contre les biens et les personnes dans un but de lucre. Ils doivent être distingués à la fois des actes similaires commis sur la terre ferme ou en mer territoriale et des entreprises fondées sur des buts politiques » (Nguyen) Activité maritime très ancienne Lettres de course: corsaires Traité de Paris du 30 mars 1856 (Guerre de Crimée) Pas disparue: Mer de Chine, Mer Rouge Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

2. La protection de la liberté religieuse Guerres de religion européennes des 15e et 16e siècles Ghettos juifs et pogroms Traités de Westphalie de 1648 Traité de Paris de 1763 Traité de Constantinople de 1881 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 3. L’abolition de l’esclavage L’esclavage fut légal jusqu’en : UK : 1772 Vermont: 1777 Danemark : 1792 Haïti : 1793 Colonies UK: 1807 (interdiction de la traite) Colonies UK: 1834 (Emancipation Act) France: 1794-1802; 1848 USA : 1820 ; 1863 Cuba : 1886 Brésil : 1888 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 3. L’abolition de l’esclavage Somersett’s Case [Engl in addition to , 1772]: “The state of slavery is of such a nature that it is incapable of being introduced on any reasons, moral or political, but only by positive law” Congrès de Vienne de 1815 Dred Scott v. San as long as d [USSC, 1857]: slaves are property. Acte général de Berlin de 1885 Traité anti-esclavage de Bruxelles de 1890 Pacte de la SDN, 1919 Convention relative à l’esclavage, 1926 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

3. L’abolition de l’esclavage L’esclavage existe encore: 300M d’esclaves “Nouvelles as long as mes d’esclavage” Siliadin c. France, CEDH 2005 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 4. Le droit de la guerre La “guerre juste”: jus ad bellum, jus in bello Paquete Habana (USSC 1900): « at the present day, by the general consent of the civilized nations of the world, in addition to independently of any express treaty or other public act, it is an established rule of international law, founded on considerations of humanity to a poor in addition to industrious order of men, in addition to of the mutual convenience of belligerent states, that coast fishing vessels, with their implements in addition to supplies, cargoes in addition to crews, unarmed in addition to honestly pursuing their peaceful calling of catching in addition to bringing in fresh fish, are exempt from capture as prize of war.” Conventions La Haye 1907 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 5. Le droit humanitaire 1853- 1855: Guerre de Crimée: Florence Nightingale + “The Charge of the Light Brigade” Over 300.000 killed, incl. over ¾ who died of wounds or disease. 1859: Bataille de Solferino: 40.000 morts et blessés 1863: Henri Dunant: Comité international et permanent de secours aux militaires blessés en temps de guerre (futur CICR) Convention de Genève du 22 août 1864 pour l’amélioration du sort des militaires blessés dans les armées en campagne 1864-1936: 35 instruments internationaux. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

6. Le droit de la responsabilité de l’État et la protection diplomatique Commerçants (foires, consuls), diplomates (premières ambassades), simples citoyens L’État national ne défend pas un droit de la personne, mais exerce son droit souverain de prendre à son compte les intérêts d’un de ses citoyens. Plusieurs affaires internationales contemporaines: Mavrommatis, Nottebohm, Barcelona Traction, etc. United States of America (Chattin) v. United Mexican States, U.S.-Mexican Claims Commission, 1927 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 7. La protection internationale des minorités « Régime des capitulations » entre puissances occidentales et l’Empire Ottoman Protection des étrangers dans l’Empire Ottoman: l’étranger a le droit de voyager et de commercer il est exempt d’impôt, sauf de droits de douanes il bénéficie de la liberté de religion et de l’inviolabilité de son domicile il ne peut être jugé, même en matière pénale, que par son consul. Protection des Chrétiens de l’Empire Ottoman. « Interventions d’humanité » pour la protection des minorités « Doctrine de Monroe » (Cuba, 1898) Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 7. La protection internationale des minorités Sous la SDN À la fin de la guerre, les trois gr in addition to s « empires centraux » sont disloqués. 14 points de Wilson Régime de traités sur les minorités, imposé aux puissances vaincues ou nouvelles Écoles minoritaires en Albanie (avis consultatif, CPJI, 1935) Échec du système devant la montée des fascismes Rejet du système après la guerre, en faveur d’un régime de droits humains individuels. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

8. Les droits des travailleurs 19e siècle: suite à la révolution industrielle, mouvement en faveur de normes internationales du travail. Trois arguments: Humanitaire : améliorer le sort des ouvriers. Politique : consolider la paix sociale. Économique : assurer un « level-playing field » au plan commercial. Constitution de l’OIT (1919): grosse activité normative Déclaration de Philadelphie (1944) Le travail n’est pas une march in addition to ise. Les libertés d’expression et d’association sont indispensables au progrès. La pauvreté des uns est un danger pour la prospérité de tous. Tous les êtres humains, quels que soient leur race, leur croyance ou leur sexe, ont le droit de poursuivre leur progrès matériel et leur développement spirituel dans la liberté et la dignité, dans la sécurité économique et avec des chances égales. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 9. La protection des réfugiés L’asile est une tradition ancienne, immémoriale, transcivilisationnelle, liée à la gr in addition to e loi d’hospitalité 1919: 1,5 M réfugiés/apatrides russes 1921-1945: Nombreux arrangements et conventions: documents d’identité et de voyage, réfugiés russes, arméniens, juifs allem in addition to s, républicains espagnols 1946: OIR 1950: UNHCR 1951: Convention de Genève sur le statut des réfugiés Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 10. Les quatre libertés de Roosevelt 1941: Freedom of speech in addition to expression Freedom of every person to worship God in his own way Freedom from want Freedom from fear Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

10. Les quatre libertés de Roosevelt Freedom from want is detailed in 1944: Right to a useful in addition to remunerative job Right to earn enough to provide adequate food in addition to clothing in addition to recreation Right of every farmer to raise in addition to sell his products at a return which will give him in addition to his family a decent living Right of every business man, large in addition to small, to trade with freedom from unfair competition in addition to domination by monopolies Right of every family to a decent home Right to adequate medical care in addition to the opportunity to achieve in addition to enjoy good health Right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, in addition to sickness, in addition to accident in addition to unemployment Right to a good education This is a second Bill of Rights. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 11. Nuremberg Accord de Londres du 8 août 1945 concernant la poursuite et le châtiment des gr in addition to s criminels de guerre des Puissances européennes de l’Axe et portant statut du tribunal international militaire Crée le Tribunal de Nüremberg Définit les crimes contre la paix (Pacte Bri in addition to -Kellogg de 1928) crimes de guerre (droit de la guerre) crimes contre l’humanité (nouveau) Jugement du 1er octobre 1946 pose de nombreux principes: Responsabilité pénale individuelle Refus de la défense d’obéissance (Eichmann) Convention sur la prévention et la répression du crime de génocide de 1948 Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Les fondements de notre DIDH Ces régimes précurseurs font tous partie de l’aventure intellectuelle qui nous mène au régime international des droits humains qui est le nôtre. La tradition des DH ne naît pas avec la DUDH en 1948. Elle est à la fois synthèse (codification) et développement. Comme la Rule of Law de Dicey. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Sovereignty v. Human Rights Conflict of paradigms Ancient paradigm: Sovereignty States have the power to act as they please, as long as they do not interfere with the same by other States New Paradigm: Human Rights Individuals have the right to object to the exercise of State powers in addition to may claim services from States No hierarchy in IL Both paradigms coexist in addition to must be reconciled at best UN system is not Kelsen’s pyramid: constellations Hierarchy in domestic law Constitutional Law has generally placed human rights above parliamentary sovereignty. Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 A rich normative structure Binding UN instruments: 1948 Convention on the Prevention in addition to Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1965 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 1966 International Covenant on Civil in addition to Political Rights (ICCPR) 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social, in addition to Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 1973 International Convention on the Suppression in addition to Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (ICSPCA) 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 1984 Convention Against Torture (CAT) 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers in addition to Members of Their Families (MWC) 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 2006 International Convention as long as the Protection of All Persons from En as long as ced Disappearance Other binding instruments: ILO, UNESCO Soft law, including 1948 UDHR in addition to 2007 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Regional normative regimes: Europe, Latin America, Africa Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

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A complex institutional framework UN General Assembly Human Rights Council OHCHR: Under-Secretary General Human rights officers Treaty bodies Special procedures Regional bodies ECtHR, IACtHR, ACtHPR IAComHR, AComHPR Council of Europe, OSCE NGOS: AI, HRW, HRFirst Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 A living legal tradition All these institutions report from field in addition to interpret IHRL. A “living tree”: Doctrine of progressive interpretation, rather than that of the framer’s intent 1993 Vienna Declaration: “All human rights are universal, indivisible in addition to interdependent in addition to interrelated”: Universality over “cultural relativity” Adopted by consensus: all States CSOs throughout the world use HR to protect the most vulnerable The general objective is to protect the “dignity” of all human beings Dignity can be defined as the exercise of autonomy, the ability to make choices as long as oneself, the protection from being as long as ced to do what others deem appropriate “Dignity” is not well articulated in law Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 The artificial divisions of HR Civil in addition to political rights: the liberal rights Major rights in addition to freedoms: life, liberty, security; expression; association; from torture; from arbitrary arrest, detention, search in addition to seizure; from unfair trial; Content of the Canadian Charter of Rights in addition to Freedoms Economic, social in addition to cultural rights The post-war social agenda The issue of justiciability The fallacious distinction btw “positive” in addition to “negative” rights Conditions: Right not to be discriminated = obligation to justify distinctions Right to a minimum level of services Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

Examples of social rights Grootboom: right to housing Pashim Banga: right to minimum health care services Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 HR as an advocacy tool IHRL in addition to domestic HRL are a tool as long as vulnerable persons in addition to “discrete in addition to insular minorities”, who have no political leverage: Industrial workers Women Aboriginals Minorities (linguistic, ethnic, religious, cultural ) Detainees LGBTI Migrants For them, HR matter: they have no other tool P. Williams on the empowering role of Law as long as minorities, despite its roots in the exercise of power by the dominant class But law by itself doesn’t change a social situation, absent a political mobilisation Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 HR are a perfectible tool Debates continue as to: Relevance of IHRL in specific cultural contexts: Role of interpretation “Asian values”, Sharia law, place of the individual within the group Legitimacy of IHRL in non-European contexts: neo-colonialism: Mutua Efficiency of IHRL in the face of so many egregious human rights violations Conflict of paradigm between power in addition to law is not resolved HR will have to be completed/superseded: De Sousa Santos: Human-centred HR are wrong analytical grid as long as environmental issues where life cycles are affected in addition to where humans are only one element among many others Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

Migrants are citizens Not necessarily Citizens But active part of city life, at all levels, even when undocumented: They participate in the competitiveness of the economy Working conditions that “we” don’t accept : Triple D Lower wages, long hours, polluted environment Repression against “illegal employers” is minimal We all benefit from this “delocalisation sur place” They usually benefit little from the social system Their children are Citizens of tomorrow Trade the Us/Them dichotomy as long as the I/We discourse Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013 Conclusion No man is an isl in addition to , entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of they friends’s or of thine own were. Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind. And there as long as e never send to know as long as whom the bell tolls; it tolls as long as thee. John Donne (1572-1631) Crépeau Foundations Plenary 2013

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