Introduction network Protocol A protocol is a set of rules that governs the

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Introduction network Protocol A protocol is a set of rules that governs the

DeSales University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Introduction network Protocol A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network These rules include guidelines that regulate: the method of access, types of cabling in addition to speed of size data transfer The most common protocols are: Ethernet Local Talk Token Ring FDDI ATM Protocol = a formal description of a set of rules in addition to conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange information Did you ever wonder what HTTP in web addresses was about? It stands in consideration of HyperText Transfer Protocol Ethernet Most widely used Uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection

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What does that mean? Each computer in the network ?listens? so that the cable before sending anything through the network. If the network is clear, the computer will transmit. If another computer is already transmitting on the cable, the computer will wait in addition to try again when the line is clear A bit like waiting in consideration of some one so that get off the telephone Ethernet (continued) A collision happens if two computers attempt so that transmit at the same time. Each computer then backs off in addition to waits a random amount of time before attempting so that retransmit .It is normal so that have collisions using this method, but the delays caused by collisions in addition to transmissions is small, in addition to does not effect speed of transmission on the network CSMA/CD =Carrier Sense Multiple Access /Collision Detection Ethernet (continued) Ethernet protocol allows in consideration of data so that be transmitted over twisted pair, coaxial or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps (more on that later)

Fast Ethernet To allow in consideration of faster transmission, the Ethernet protocol has developed a new standard that supports 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet requires the use of more expensive equipment in addition to network cards Gigabit Ethernet The Ethernet protocol has also developed a new standard that allows transmission of 1 Gbps (gigabit per second) One gigabit per second = one thousand megabits per second Local Talk Local Talk is a network protocol that was developed by Apple in consideration of Macintosh computers Local Talk uses the CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access alongside Collision Avoidance It works in a similar way so that CSMA/CD It is a lot slower than Ethernet (only 230 Kbps)

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Token Ring Token ring protocol involves ?token-passing?. It is not as popular as Ethernet protocol A single electronic ?token? moves around the ring from one computer so that the next. If a computer wishes so that transit in addition to receives an empty token, it attaches data so that the token which then proceeds around the ring until it comes so that the computer the data is meant for. FDDI Stands in consideration of Fiber Distributed Data Interface Is used mainly so that connect two or more LANs, often over large distances Can operate over fiber optic cable at 100 Mbps ATM- Asynchronous Transfer Mode Transmit data at a speed of 155 Mbps in addition to higher Works by transmitting all data in small packets of fixed size (other protocols transfer variable size packets) Like FDDI , is most often used so that connect two or more LANs

Where does TCP/IP fit into all this? TCP/IP is the protocol that is used in consideration of the transmission of information over the Internet IP (Internet Protocol) – the main delivery system in consideration of information over the Internet TCP (Transport Control Protocol) – used so that break apart in addition to rebuild information that travels over the Internet In Chapter 3 We will look into this protocol in details.

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