Introduction Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) Important to note What are biopesticides

Introduction Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) Important to note What are biopesticides www.phwiki.com

Introduction Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) Important to note What are biopesticides

Spurgin, Jess, General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Dr Justin Greaves, University of Warwick Implications as long as regulation: lessons from Biopesticides This presentation is based on an article of mine in Public Policy in addition to Administration, Volume 24, no 3, 2009 The research project upon which this article draws is funded by the Rural Economy in addition to L in addition to Use Programme Introduction Bureaucrats in addition to regulators are typically ( in addition to underst in addition to ably) risk averse Their desire to avoid things going wrong means they are not natural innovators Risk averseness does not create an encouraging environment as long as regulatory innovation – term almost a contradiction

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Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) We use the example of PSD’s work on biopesticides to examine in addition to develop accounts of regulatory innovation PSD was an agency of the Department of Environment, Food in addition to Rural Affairs (Defra) Around 200 staff – responsible as long as the registration of agricultural pesticides Important to note The Chemical Regulation Directorate has now been created in the Health in addition to Safety Executive (HSE) Formed in April 2009 this integrates PSD with responsibility as long as biocides What are biopesticides Biopesticides are mass produced biologically based agents used as long as the control of plant pests. They include: – Living Organisms (natural enemies) invertebrates, nematodes in addition to micro-organisms – Naturally Occurring substances plant abstracts; Semiochemicals (eg: insect pheromones) – Genes (USA) Plant Incorporated Products

Why such a low take-up Microbial biopesticides represent less than 1% of the global market One explanation is ‘market failure’ – the market is too small to provide economies of scale in addition to encourage firms to enter The other explanation is that of ‘regulatory failure’ Bureucratic theory Systems of regulation may have unintended consequences Bureaucratic theory points to a tendency as long as mechanisms to replace goals, as long as processes to become more important than outcomes UK regulatory system developed according to a chemical pesticide model – a barrier to biopesticide commercialisation

What is regulatory innovation Distinction between change in addition to innovation Innovation can be seen as ‘the application of new solutions to old problems, or new solutions to new (or newly constructed) problems, but not old solutions to old problems (Black 2005) What is regulatory innovation (2) Hall’s typology of policy change 1st order changes are changes to the levels or settings of basic instruments (not considered here innovation) 2nd order changes are changes in technique, process or instrument 3rd order changes involve changes in the goals in addition to underst in addition to ings of policy (‘paradigm shifts’) Policy networks Policy network theory suggests networks good at managing incremental change Only tend to innovate in conditions of crisis or exogenous shock Situation complicated by an underper as long as ming in addition to incomplete policy network (see Greaves in addition to Grant article in British Politics, 2010, vol 5, no 1)

How in addition to why does regulatory innovation occur Black’s five worlds of regulatory innovation The individual The organization The state The global polity ‘the world of the innovation’ Criticism of Black Academia criticized as long as lack of high quality research on innovation in public sector – ‘how was it done’ Black’s ‘five worlds’ do not lend themselves to practice, often no identifiable tools as long as action Trying to cover every possible theory or explanation – potentially little leverage Warwick iCast Be as long as e we continue here is a short video clip on the project, bringing out some of the issues we are discussing

The Biopesticides Scheme In June 2003 PSD launched a pilot scheme to promote alternative control measures Reduced registration fees, pre-submission meetings. A permanent Biopesticides Scheme launched in June 2006 – also introducing the role of a Biopesticides ‘champion’ Other changes Change of ‘culture’ just as important An ‘internal reorientation’ Pragmatism in addition to rules ‘open to interpretation’ Use of published data rather than expensive field trials where appropriate An acknowledgment different questions may need to be asked about biologicals But is this innovation Reduction in fees 1st order policy change Much is 2nd order – pre-submission meetings, biopesticides champion etc Change in ‘paradigm’ (Buffin) Unusual as long as a regulatory agency to negotiate new policy spaces it which to operate ‘Quite remarkable as long as a regulatory agency’

Contextual drivers The public are concerned about the possible health effects of pesticide residues on food This leads to action by retailers in addition to others Environmental concerns The problem of ‘resistance’ Exogenous pressures Defra was keen to encourage the wider use of biopesticides Given slow progress, the institutions of the core executive needed to intervene The Business Regulation Team (BRT) of the Cabinet Office ‘leaned’ on PSD ‘Aims in addition to Objectives’ agreed with ministers in Spring 2003 included developing in addition to introducing alternatives Endogenous pressures There was also an endogenous steer from within PSD They were keen to discuss how the new aim could be promoted Key individuals important in driving through innovation ‘Horizontal’ working practices

Endogenous pressures (2) Those who work on biopesticides have shown great enthusiasm as long as their work Desire to do a ‘better job’, career building etc They see themselves as scientists first in addition to regulators second This results in a desire to learn, driving innovation as long as ward A ‘champion’ organization The literature refers to ‘champions’ who push through innovation But a gap in the literature when it comes to ‘champion organizations’ Could a quasi-governmental organization, an advocate of biopesticides, lead to greater regulatory change Consider BPPD of the EPA in US Re as long as m of institutional structures Hampton Review on regulation reported in April 2005 Proposed streamlining – too many small regulators Implication PSD should be merged into a larger thematic regulator But could a smaller organisation be more flexible in addition to responsive Could the initiative on biopesticides end up being lost

Spurgin, Jess KXEG-AM General Manager www.phwiki.com

Conclusions in addition to lessons (1) Fundamental tension between expectations that regulators will be consistent, predictable in addition to impartial – yet also innovative Consequences of making a mistake are serious, esp where public/environmental safety concerned But regulators must respond to changing dem in addition to s in society in addition to retain trust of politicians in addition to stakeholders Conclusions in addition to lessons (2) In terms of animal health issues Are there any lessons as long as the proposed Animal Health Organization Should the regulation of plant in addition to animal diseases be in separate compartments Please visit our website : http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/biopesticides Acknowledgements: Prof Wyn Grant Prof Mark Tatchell Dr David Ch in addition to ler Gillian Prince (University of Warwick)

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