Introduction: RESPIRATORY CONTROL: Regulation of respiration by presence/absence of ADP
Roop, Lee, News Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Introduction: Review of e- transport in addition to H+ pumps. Structure in addition to function of ATP synthase. Quantitation of Chemiosmotic Potential. ADP regulation of respiratory metabolism. Chemical/morphologic events of respiration. Metabolite pumps of inner mitochondrial membrane. The Ca++ pump, a key mitochondrial function. Spectral properties of heme proteins. Distinguish between Oxidases in addition to Oxygenases The role of Oxygen free radicals in tissues in addition to mechanisms that protect against tissue damage Key issues revisited: 1. e- transport results in: a. increased transmembrane D[H+]. Hi H+ outside. b. increased transmembrane DV (+ outside). 2. Trans as long as mation of H+ energy into ATP energy requires: a. Intact membrane b. Transmembrane proton driven ATP synthase c. ADP in addition to inorganic phosphate I Complex ATP Synthase is very large in addition to complex
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Quantification of the Chemiosmotic Potential The 1st term is also known as the proton motive as long as ce (pmf). In the 2nd term is transmembrane potential in Volts. The 3rd term represents difference in [DH+] across the membrane Any combination of values as long as membrane potential in addition to pH difference that sum to more than the free energy of synthesizing ATP will lead to ATP synthesis. 1. Free energy available from a concentration difference across a membrane: 2. In the special case where the concentration difference is due that of H+: Metabolic Regulation by Mass Action Principals 1. Normally the rate of electron transport is set by the available ADP, i.e., the energy charge of the cell regulates the process. 2. When ADP is limiting: a. Flow thru ATPase slows. b. H+ accumulates in cytosol. c. proton pumps become limited by hi pmf. d. electron transport slows because pumps are slowed e. the rate of O2 utilization is minimized in addition to reduced substrates are conserved . E. T. S. RESPIRATORY CONTROL: Regulation of respiration by presence/absence of ADP state 4 (resting respiration) Electron micrographs illustrating morphological changes mitochondria undergo as they pass from resting state (top, orthodox as long as m) to active state (bottom. condensed as long as m) state 3 (active respiration)
Other inner membrane carrier systems Antiport Symport Antiport Antiport Calcium Transport, a preeminent regulator of cell metabolism The mitochondrial calcium carrier is one of the most active carriers of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Calcium transport is driven by the pmf generated by electron transport or ATP hydrolysis. The mitochondrial calcium carrier is an important reservoir of cellular calcium, sequestering in addition to releasing Ca++ in response to a variety of signals, e.g., depolarizing voltage in muscle cells, IP3 in hormone sensitive cells. Key Spectral Properties of Heme Proteins Pure Cytochrome c Mitochondrial suspension: (reduced – oxidized) As apparent from the above, the red- uced as long as m (ferrous) of cyt. c is more absorbing than is the oxidized as long as m. Similar spectral effects are observed when mitochondria are made reduced. All the cytochromes are more absorb- ing than cytochromes in aerobic or oxidized mitochondria.
Comparison of oxidases & oxygenases Oxidases, (cyt. a+a3 oxidase) incorporate molecular oxygen only into water Dioxygenases incorporate oxygen only into organic molecule, (inter or intra molecular) Monooxygenase incorporate one atom of oxygen from O2 into water in addition to one atom of oxygen into an organic molecule. Because of this dual use of oxygen these oxygenases are often called mixed function oxygenases. These enzymes are highly inducible, they act to detoxify in addition to make soluble many otherwise deleterious compounds in addition to they all contain the heme protein known as cytochrome P450. Classic P450 mono oxygenase Tissue generation in addition to disposition of oxygen free radicals
Glutathione, a key subcellular reductant Vitamin E, a dietary lipophylic antioxidant
Roop, Lee News Columnist
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