Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Overview Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres

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Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Overview Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres

Elizabethtown College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres Summary: Patrick Wilkinson Critique: James Silva Overview Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism The Materials Cycle Measures of Industrial Metabolism Policy Implications of the Industrial Metabolism Perspective Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Definition: ?the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials in addition to energy, plus labor, into finished products in addition to wastes in a (more or less) steady-state condition.? Metabolism: Analogous so that the process of a living organism Takes in food in consideration of self/storage in addition to excretes wastes. Differences: Organisms reproduce themselves, specialized, change over long period of time. Firms produce products or services, not specialized, can change quickly

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The Materials Cycle Closed cycles are self-sustaining alongside no external sources or sinks in addition to are in steady state. Open cycles are unsustainable, using materials without replenishing sources. Must stabilize or will ultimately fail The Biological cycle is a closed cycle, while our industrial cycle is an open cycle. The Material Cycle ?Industrial system of today?: Unsustainable Can this stabilization be obtained alongside a ?technological ?fix??? If so, how? If not, how long will the current system last? Biological system Has not always been a closed system ?Responded so that inherently unstable situations (open cycles) by ?inventing? new processes (organisms) so that stabilize the system by closing the cycles.? Time scales Biological system took billions of years Industrial system does not have that much time Measures of Industrial Metabolism Recycling in addition to dissipative loss are the ?fates? of all waste materials There are 3 classes of materials use Those that are recyclable under present technology in addition to cost Those that are recyclable, but not under present tech. in addition to cost Those that are not recyclable For the industrial system so that function as a closed cycle, it must recycle or reuse nearly all materials

Measures of Industrial Metabolism Examples of dissipative use: Class 3 materials Sulfur CFC?s Ammonia Phosphoric acid Chlorine Although can be classified as class 2 when used in plastics in addition to solvents Measures of Industrial Metabolism Potentially recyclable materials Are they being recycled in addition to reused? Recycle (reuse) vs. Dissipation of a material shows how far sustainability is from being reached Policy Implications of the Industrial Metabolism Perspective Industrial metabolism is ?holistic? in theory All interactions are considered together resulting in the best in consideration of the system as a whole Short term solutions in addition to policies, however, are being enforced Such policies are usually more harmful in addition to costly in the long run Ex.?s Pollution in addition to coal as a fuel Air in addition to water pollution reduced, but land disposal increased Clean coal technology could extend coal as fuel, but effects of byproducts extended as well

CS 61B Data Structures in addition to Programming Methodology Announcements Today Static Fields in addition to Methods Constants Constants (cont.) Preventing Inheritance Abstract Classes Example Example (cont.) Abstract Class Rules in consideration of Classes Example What are Interfaces? Example Example compareTo Example compareTo Comparable Properties of Interfaces Properties of Interfaces Extending Interfaces Interfaces in addition to Abstract Classes Implement Multiple Interfaces Using Interfaces in addition to Abstract Class The Java Collections Framework Next Lecture

Critique Sulfur Example Comparison: human vs. natural Material Source vs. Material Path A more ?holistic view? Sulfur Example Example of Dissipative use Nearly all sulfur mined is dissipated or discarded Mostly used in consideration of sulfuric acid ? used in non-recyclable chemicals Thus sulfur mainly falls into the third category But? plaster-of Paris Comparison: human vs. natural Where is the natural so that compare alongside the anthropogenic? What are the percentages referring to? ?In all cases, alongside the possible exception of nitrogen, the anthropogenic contributions exceed the natural flows by a considerable margin.? Really?

Comparison: human vs. natural (Can you interpret this?) Material Source vs. Material Path Should be less concerned alongside how much of something is left than alongside what path used material takes How much oil/steel/etc. is left so that be extracted from natural sources is not a good measure of evaluation in consideration of industrial processes A better way is so that quantify how much recycling of material is going on: What do we do alongside what we use? A more ?holistic view? Defines it more by what it is not Contrasts alongside ?narrowly conceived or short-run (myopic) ?quick fix? policies? Longer pipelines in consideration of sewage Air vs. water vs. land Not an in-depth application paper Less than 15 pages The industrial system of tomorrow??

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