Introduction to METEOROLOGY Cirrus Clouds Altocumulus Clouds Stratus Clouds Cumulonimbus Clouds

Introduction to METEOROLOGY Cirrus Clouds Altocumulus Clouds Stratus Clouds Cumulonimbus Clouds www.phwiki.com

Introduction to METEOROLOGY Cirrus Clouds Altocumulus Clouds Stratus Clouds Cumulonimbus Clouds

Malach, Matthew, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Introduction to METEOROLOGY Philip Bedient Civil in addition to Environmental Eng Rice University Severe Storms HAIL STORMS

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Cirrus Clouds Feathery or fibrous High: Over 7 km or 23,000 ft Composed entirely of ice crystals Altocumulus Clouds Fluffy, cotton-ball like clouds Middle: 2-7 km, 6500-23,000 ft Stratus Clouds Stratified or in layers Low: Below 2 km or 6,500 ft. Extremely thin

Cumulonimbus Clouds Gray rain clouds of vertical development Base below 2 km or 6,500 ft. Can extend over 30 to 40,000 ft Latent heat is required to evaporate water, melt ice or sublimate ice (convert ice directly to vapor). Note, it requires approximately 600 calories of heat to evaporate one gram of water. Humidity Vapor Pressure Generally increases with Temperature Higher over liquid vs ice as long as same T Vital to the heat balance on earth Gulf coast is most humid area in U.S.

Temperature Distribution in the Vertical In the lowest layer, the troposphere, the temperature decreases with height at an average of 6.5 degrees C/km (3.5 deg. F/1000 ft). The air in this layer is well stirred due to vertical convection currents. Almost all clouds are found in this layer. The second layer, called the stratosphere, has an upper boundary of about 50 km. The temperature is relatively constant in the lower part, but it increases with height in the upper. The mesosphere is the zone between 50 in addition to 85 km in which the temperature decreases rapidly with height, reaching about -95 deg. C at the mesopause (the coldest point in the atmosphere). In the thermosphere the temperature increases with height. SOLAR ENERGY The rate at which energy is emitted from each square centimeter of surface as a function of wavelength is very much like that as long as an ideal or black body at 6000 K. Measured in Cal/m2 O.3 – 0.8 mm 0.8 – 20 mm Sun Earth

Absorption of Radiation UV Infrared Ozone Hole The clear atmosphere is essentially transparent between 0.3 in addition to 0.8 um, where most of the solar (short wave) radiation occurs. Between 0.8 in addition to 20 um, where much of the terrestrial (long wave) radiation is emitted, there are several b in addition to s of moderate absorptivity by water vapor, carbon dioxide, in addition to other trace gases. SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ATMOSPHERE Earth’s Heat Balance

Figure 3.4 shows what happens to the earths energy. 69% is lost by the earth in addition to its atmosphere to space. Although there is a heat balance as long as the planet as a whole, all parts of the earth in addition to its atmosphere are not in radiative balance. It is the imbalance between incoming in addition to outgoing energy over the earth that leads to the creation of wind systems in addition to ocean currents that act to alleviate the surpluses in addition to deficits of heat. THE EARTH’S HEAT BALANCE July January Mean Surface T Seasonal Variation of the Earth’s Energy The fact that the oceans act as heat reservoirs is illustrated by the January in addition to July mean air temperature maps seen in the previous figure. There is a greater variation in the temperature between seasons in middle in addition to high latitudes over the continents than over the ocean. Also note how the isotherms dip equatorward over the oceans in summer in addition to poleward in the winter, indicating that the ocean is cooler than the l in addition to in summer in addition to warmer than the l in addition to in winter.

Temperature Lag Daily Annual Temperature Lag Earth loses heat continuously through radiation. During some months, the incoming energy exceeds the outgoing energy of the Earth. The temperature will increase because the airs heat content will be rising. The max temperature will occur at the time when the incoming energy ceases to exceed the outgoing. When the outgoing energy is greater than the incoming, the temperature will fall until the two are again in balance. At the point where a “surplus” of energy begins to appear, the lowest temperature will have occurred. Air in Motion vv

General Circulation of the Atmosphere The horizontal flow ot the Earths surface is shown in the center of the diagram; the net meridian circulation, at the surface in addition to aloft is depicted around the periphery. The component of the flow along meridians has a speed on average of less than 0.1 of that along latitude circles The effect of Corioles as long as ce tends to bend streamlines to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Jet streams were only discovered in 1946 in addition to are important drivers of major weather in addition to air mass systems. They flow at hundreds of MPH in addition to dominate U.S. weather especially in the winter. Force Balance High Low

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Vertical Motion in addition to its Relation to Clouds An important cause of vertical motion is the divergence in addition to convergence of air currents circulating around the great anticyclones in addition to cyclonic spins of the atmosphere. Air currents spiraling inward at low levels of cyclones converge, in other words, they move toward the center. Since the horizontal area occupied by a volume of air must decrease with time, the vertical depth must increase. Frontal Passage Cold Warm Winds increase as cold front approaches The simplified National Weather Service map shows an intense winter cold wave caused by an outbreak of frigid continental arctic air. This event brought subfreezing temperatures as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. Temperatures on NWS maps are in degrees Fahrenheit. Houston temperature dropped to 8 degrees F as long as more than 8 hours in addition to caused massive damage to plumbing systems in 1989. THE SIBERIAN EXPRESS

COLD FRONT Development of a Wave Cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere The genesis stage of the wave cyclone normally takes between 12 in addition to 24 hours. Subsequent development of the wave, shown in the previous figures, takes an additional two or three days. As the wave breaks, the cold front begins to overtake the warm front. This process is called occlusion in addition to the resulting boundary is call an occluded front.

Flow in Severe Thunderstorm In Figure 5.24 a storm is moving toward the right in addition to is being continually supplied with warm, moist, low-level air at its leading edge. In the updraft fed by this inflow, condensation produces rain below the freezing level in addition to ice at higher levels. To the rear of the storm, dry middle-level air is incorporated into the storm. As evaporation of rain cools this air, it becomes negatively buoyant in addition to sinks. When the resulting downdraft reaches the ground, it spread out in addition to as long as ms the gust front. Nature’s Wonders

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