Introduction to the Physics Echocardiography THE BASIC PHYSICS 3D probes Types of Ultrasound “Formats” 3D Format

Introduction to the Physics Echocardiography THE BASIC PHYSICS 3D probes Types of Ultrasound “Formats” 3D Format www.phwiki.com

Introduction to the Physics Echocardiography THE BASIC PHYSICS 3D probes Types of Ultrasound “Formats” 3D Format

Firestone, Shirley, Food Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Introduction to the Physics Echocardiography Jose L. Rivera, M.D. January 9, 2010 The Basic Physics Image Generation: The Physics of Ultrasound Doppler Imaging Modalities & Measurement of Blood Velocities Use of Calculus to manipulate ultrasound Doppler in as long as mation Objectives Explain how the various modes of ultrasound image are generated Define the basic physics in addition to calculus concepts used in medical ultrasound imaging

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Objectives Discuss the utility in addition to applications of Doppler color flows imaging. Explain the difference between Pulsed Doppler in addition to Continuous Doppler in addition to their applications Physics of Echocardiography Brief Review of Echocardiography Physics to: Underst in addition to the generation, propagation in addition to detection of Ultrasounds Waves Explain how the physical principles affect our measurements in addition to images Appreciate the strengths in addition to limitations of the technology THE BASIC PHYSICS ULTRASOUND WAVES IN A FLUID BEHAVE LIKE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN A VACUUM THEIR ENERGY SOURCE ORIGINATES FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES & THEY RETAIN SOME OF THOSE WAVE PROPERTIES THEIR PROPERTIES CAN BE ANALYZED WITH BASIC CALCULUS (Integral & Differential)

The following diagrams on the following slides were obtained from Sidebotham’s “Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography Piezoelectric Effect Piezoelectric effect results in Compression & Rarefaction: The Shockwave

Damping Material is used to “ring down” the Pulse Length & B in addition to width which results in improved resolution Ultrasound Interactions with Tissue Interfaces Arrow represent Vectors whose length equal the strength & direction of the reflected signal A in addition to B represent specular (mirror like) reflectors, the B return signal does not return to the transducer C in addition to D have a rough surface that is typical of human tissue E are objects smaller than a wavelength & there as long as e scatter the energy Interactions of Ultrasound Waves with Tissue The interactions will determine the types of images & artifacts that are generated

Reflection, Attenuation & Time Gain Conpensation Settings Transducer Frequency & Wavelength affect Resolution & Penetration TRANSDUCERS DESIGN Piezoelectric Principle is universal Linear Array Nerve Block probe Mechanical Sector Scan old Site Rite Phase Array Design 3D probes

Mechanical Sector Scan PHASE ARRAY TRANSDUCER Generating the Summation Wave front Steering the Phase Array Summation Wave Front

3D probes Types of Ultrasound “Formats” A mode (amplitude) B mode (brightness) Most common M mode (motion) Doppler Pulse Wave Continuous Wave Color Flow 3D A Mode (amplitude) B Mode (2D) M Mode (motion)

3D Format Fig 3.48 video.avi SUMMARY Underst in addition to ing Echocardiography Physics will enhance our underst in addition to ing of: The physical principles that affect our measurements in addition to images Knowing when to believe or doubt our results The strengths in addition to limitations of the technology

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