Is Homework Good as long as You When looking at a pile of homework, do you ever wonder

Is Homework Good as long as You When looking at a pile of homework, do you ever wonder www.phwiki.com

Is Homework Good as long as You When looking at a pile of homework, do you ever wonder

Berthiaume, Mark, Operations Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Is Homework Good as long as You When looking at a pile of homework, do you ever wonder, why bother Even if you enjoy the challenge of learning new things, have you ever thought about what might be going on in your brain when you read, work on math problems, or study other subjects Source: http://www.libcoop.net/warren/ Created by Nora Murphy, Lexington High School Thanks to Harvard University MCB/HHMI Outreach Program staff in addition to participants, Summer 2005, as long as support in addition to technical assistance, in addition to to my students, whose questions inspired this activity In this lesson, you will have the opportunity to examine the results of some experiments in addition to decide as long as yourself what might be happening in your brain as you learn. Be as long as e you look at the experiments, you need to underst in addition to the relationship between learning in addition to memory. Orange dots represent multiple synapses on a single neuron Sources: http://www.med.harvard.edu/publications/On-The-Brain/Volume4/Number2/SP95In.html; http://www.vision.caltech.edu/feifeili/101-ObjectCategories/brain/ Recent studies in neuroscience provide some insight into what might be going on in your brain as you learn new in as long as mation A nerve cell, glowing due to fluorescent protein attached to the cell membrane Learning is how we acquire new in as long as mation. Memory is the process that results in storage of learned in as long as mation. Learning in addition to memory are fundamentally related: . After R. Lynch, 2004. new in as long as mation short term memory Practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval new in as long as mation short term memory long term memory Practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval new in as long as mation short-term memory long-term memory practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval

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Many researchers believe that short-term memory lasts as long as less than 30 seconds, just long enough to per as long as m a simple task, like dialing a phone number you just looked up in the phone book. new in as long as mation short-term memory long-term memory practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval How good is your short-term memory Try these two on-line tests http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/puzmatch.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0.html Read the following sequence silently, pausing at each dash: MT-VVC-RC-IAU-SAB-MW Look away from the computer in addition to write down any letters from this sequence that you can remember. Here’s another test of your short-term memory.

Now, read the following sequence silently, again pausing at each dash: MTV-VCR-CIA-USA-BMW Look away from the computer in addition to write down any letters from this sequence that you can remember. Take another look at the two sequences: MT-VVC-RC-IAU-SAB-MW MTV-VCR-CIA-USA-BMW Notice anything The letters are the same in each sequence. Yet, you most likely found it a lot easier to remember the second sequence. Why Most people can hold about 7 meaningful pieces of in as long as mation in their short-term memory. Meaningful pieces of in as long as mation could be numbers, words, faces, objects, or any other “chunks” of in as long as mation. While short-term memory is important, it is long-term memory that really matters when it comes to learning. How does short-term memory become long-term memory Source: http://www.stan as long as d.edu/dept/news/stan as long as dtoday/ed/9811/9811iti01.shtml

Practice (also called rehearsal) of in as long as mation is required to convert short-term memory into long-term memory. Without practice, short-term memory is as long as gotten. new in as long as mation short-term memory long-term memory practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval Practice That sounds an awful lot like studying. What kind of practice How much practice is necessary to develop long-term memory It depends on what you want to learn. London taxi drivers study as long as about two years to learn how to navigate between thous in addition to s of places-a unique education generally called “The Knowledge.” The drivers must then pass difficult tests to obtain a license to operate a taxi. Source: http://www.london2012.org/en/news/archive/2004/ december/2004-12-08-12-05.htm Given the intense mental workout required to learn The Knowledge, taxi drivers seemed like the perfect subjects as long as scientists at University College London who wanted to study what, if any, changes occur in the brain as people learn. Sources: http://www.dialacab.co.uk/defaultnomenu.asppage=LBC in addition to http://www.cs.princeton.edu/gfx/proj/sugcon/models/

What happens in the brain when taxi drivers recall routes around London In one study, 11 licensed male London taxi drivers per as long as med different mental tasks while their brain activity was recorded using positron emission tomography (PET) scans in addition to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). http://www.samc.com/UMAP/UserImages/PET-Patient.jpg The researchers’ hypothesized that different brain regions in the taxi drivers would be activated during per as long as mance of these varied mental tasks. Click on blue hyperlinks in the text to learn more Thinking about experimental design The researchers studied only male taxi drivers who were right-h in addition to ed, had worked as drivers as long as at least 3 years, in addition to had no history of psychiatric or neurological illness. Why Source: http://today.uci.edu/news/release-detail.aspkey=718 Well, as long as example, men in addition to women’s brains generally show differences in size in addition to certain features. Brain imaging studies demonstrate that men in addition to women process some in as long as mation differently. The PET scans at right show high activity (in red) in different brain regions while men in addition to women watched an emotional film. Do you think other variables like h in addition to edness in addition to mental illness could have affected the results of this experiment Why or why not How to interpret brain scan images How to interpret brain scan images Source: http://www-psych.stan as long as d.edu/~kalina/BB/Lecture02/index.html Source: http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fmri-intro/brief.html PET in addition to MRI can be used to create brain images in three different planes: Axial (horizontal) Coronal Saggital Repeated measurements are taken in addition to analyzed by computer to create images like the MRI shown below (left). Colors can be superimposed onto the images to clearly indicate regions of higher brain activity. Typically, multiple images at slightly different locations are analyzed (center). These images can be used to create a 3-dimensional model of the brain (right). Saggital (top left) Coronal (bottom left) Axial (bottom right) Axial sections at different brain locations

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a common way to visualize brain activity while the patient is conscious in addition to alert. PET creates images of the brain using positrons, tiny particles emitted from a radioactive substance administered to the patient. Commonly, this radioactive substance is attached to glucose. Where glucose is metabolized to produce energy, more radioactive particles will be emitted. Thus, areas of the brain that are more active during certain mental tasks can be identified. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/petomography.htm Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a common way to visualize brain activity while the patient is conscious in addition to alert. fMRI creates images of the brain using radio waves in addition to a strong magnetic field. fMRI can be used to identify regions of rapid metabolism. Images produced by fMRI locate where blood vessels are exp in addition to ing, extra oxygen is being used, or chemical changes are occurring. As with PET, areas of the brain that are more active during certain mental tasks can be identified using fMRI. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/functional-mr.htm The brain is organized into different regions based on shape in addition to function. Past studies of people with brain injuries in addition to laboratory animals suggest that certain regions of the brain are required as long as different types of memory. Damage to these regions results in memory loss. The figure below identifies several regions of the brain associated with memory. Source: http://www.colorado.edu/epob/epob3730rlynch/image/figure17-7.jpg

Researchers used the PET scans in addition to fMRI to observe activity in taxi drivers’ brains as they Repeated two four-digit numbers Described the shortest legal route between two locations in London Described the appearance of individual world-famous l in addition to marks Described the plots of famous films between certain points in the film Described individual frames from famous films Why do you think the researchers chose to compare these five different tasks The taxi driver experiment Click on blue hyperlinks to learn more Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a common way to visualize brain activity while the patient is conscious in addition to alert. PET creates images of the brain using positrons, tiny particles emitted from a radioactive substance administered to the patient. Commonly, this radioactive substance is attached to glucose. Where glucose is metabolized to produce energy, more radioactive particles will be emitted. Thus, areas of the brain that are more active during certain mental tasks can be identified. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/petomography.htm Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a common way to visualize brain activity while the patient is conscious in addition to alert. fMRI creates images of the brain using radio waves in addition to a strong magnetic field. fMRI can be used to identify regions of rapid metabolism. Images produced by fMRI locate where blood vessels are exp in addition to ing, extra oxygen is being used, or chemical changes are occurring. As with PET, areas of the brain that are more active during certain mental tasks can be identified using fMRI. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/functional-mr.htm

Thinking about experimental design The researchers were interested in finding out what regions of the brain were active while taxi drivers recalled the shortest legal distance between two London locations. The researchers did not want to know what regions of the brain were involved in speaking. However, the drivers had to talk during the PET scan so that researchers knew the routes that drivers remembered. Recording brain activity while drivers repeated two four-digit sequences allowed researchers to establish what regions of the brain were involved in speaking (shown at left.) Activity observed in these regions was used as a baseline (or control) to determine change in activity as drivers remembered routes, l in addition to marks, film sequences, in addition to film scenes. http://www.siu.edu/departments/cola/ling01/fronttext.html An example of the shortest legal route described by a taxi driver during a PET scan (drawn on London map) “Grosvenor square, I’d leave that by Upper Grosvenor Street in addition to turn left into Park Lane. I would eh enter Hyde Park Corner, a one-way system in addition to turn second left into Constitution Hill. I’d enter Queen Victoria Memorial one-way system in addition to eh leave by the Mall. Turn right Birdcage Walk, sorry right Horse Guards Parade, left Birdcage Walk, left as long as ward Great George Street, as long as ward into Parliament Square, as long as ward Bridge Street. I would then go left into the eh the Victoria Embankment, as long as ward the Victoria Embankment under the Blackfriars underpass in addition to turn immediate left into Puddledock, right into Queen Victoria Street, left into Friday Street, right into Queen Victoria Street eh in addition to drop the passenger at the Bank where I would then leave the Bank by Lombard Street, as long as ward King William Street eh in addition to as long as ward London Bridge. I would cross the River Thames in addition to London Bridge in addition to go as long as ward into Borough High Street. I would go down Borough High Street into Newington Causeway in addition to then I would reach the Elephant in addition to Castle where I would go around the one-way system . ” (Maguire et al., 1997, http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/17/18/7103) Thinking about experimental design Maguire et al. 1997 http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/17/18/7103 In recalling routes, it was believed that taxi drivers would remember l in addition to marks in addition to the spatial relationship between l in addition to marks (sequence). The researchers designed an experiment primarily to test two things: Are the same regions of the brain activated when drivers remember l in addition to marks in sequence (routes) compared to l in addition to marks in no sequence Are the same regions of the brain activated when drivers remember l in addition to marks in sequence (routes) compared to story elements in sequence (film plots)

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Results The graph (below right) shows levels of blood flow in the region highlighted by the black arrow in the fMRI image (above right). Which mental task resulted in the most blood flow in that region How does blood flow relate to brain activity How to interpret brain scan images Sources: Maguire et al. 1997, http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/17/18/7103; http://www-psych.stan as long as d.edu/~kalina/BB/Lecture02/index.html axial cross section How to interpret brain scan images Source: http://www-psych.stan as long as d.edu/~kalina/BB/Lecture02/index.html Source: http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fmri-intro/brief.html PET in addition to MRI can be used to create brain images in three different planes: Axial (horizontal) Coronal Saggital Repeated measurements are taken in addition to analyzed by computer to create images like the MRI shown below (left). Colors can be superimposed onto the images to clearly indicate regions of higher brain activity. Typically, multiple images at slightly different locations are analyzed (center). These images can be used to create a 3-dimensional model of the brain (right). Saggital (top left) Coronal (bottom left) Axial (bottom right) Axial sections at different brain locations Results These results suggested that the hippocampus is critical as long as recalling routes in addition to perhaps other spatial sequences. Where is the hippocampus located in the brain Source: Maguire et al. 1997, http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/17/18/7103 One area of the brain showed a high level of activity ONLY when drivers recalled routes. The PET scan at left shows the increased level of activity in this region, a part of the hippocampus.

Source: http://www.colorado.edu/epob/epob3730rlynch/image/figure17-7.jpg Activity during mental arithmetic (images at right) PET in addition to fMRI show changes in brain activity in addition to structure: Examples Source: http://www.hfi.unimelb.edu.au/content/research/projects/hm-mentala.html Increased activity while dancers watched other dancers (images at left) Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ nova/sciencenow/3204/01-audiocap.html Locations of structural differences between musicians in addition to non-musicians (images above) Source: http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/23/27/9240 Do taxi drivers’ brains change as they learn In a follow-up study, the brains of 16 licensed male London taxi drivers were analyzed using structural magnetic resonance imagining (MRI). While technically similar to fMRI, this type of MRI visualizes brain structures but does not identify regions of brain activity. The researchers hypothesized that, due to the mental challenge of The Knowledge, the brains of taxi drivers would be different in structure in comparison to the brains of the control group. Images of the brains of taxi drivers were compared to images of the brains of 50 healthy males who were not taxi drivers. Input Something changes! Source: V. Murthy. 2005. Harvard University

What can we learn from London taxi drivers Besides helping us find our way around London, these taxi drivers teach us some important things about the human brain. The researchers concluded that the connections between neurons in the hippocampus had been rearranged so that drivers could store a “mental map” of London in the posterior hippocampus. thalamus hypothalamus temporal lobe cerebellum occipital lobe corpus collosum parietal lobe cerebral cortex Sources: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-2/125-133.htm Maguire et al. 1997, http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/17/18/7103 frontal lobe hippocampus Results of taxi driver studies show that the adult brain can change due to mental activity The results you have analyzed suggest that the brain grows in response to experience. In this case, taxi drivers showed structural changes in the part of their brain where they stored their “mental map” of London. Other regions of the brain remained unchanged. Other studies show that different regions of the brain are active during different activities. How might these activities affect growth in the brain brain growth time in addition to experience Input How does the brain respond See some results of other studies of brain activity in addition to structure new in as long as mation short term memory long term memory Practice usually lost rapid retrieval as long as getting remembering slower retrieval Is homework good as long as you When you do homework, you are giving your brain a workout. This workout gives your brain the opportunity to practice, or convert short-term memory into long-term memory. Does this practice change your brain What do you think

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