ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) in addition to ITER Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering Mohamed

ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) in addition to ITER Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering Mohamed www.phwiki.com

ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) in addition to ITER Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering Mohamed

Threadgill, Doug, News Director/Program Director/Music Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) in addition to ITER Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering Mohamed Abdou VLT/USIPO Meeting, October 20-21, 2004 Introduction Recent Progress in ITER TBM Program Issues in addition to Recommended Approach FY05 in addition to FY06 Plans Recommended Approach as long as Increased Effectiveness Outline Introduction

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Integrated testing of breeding blanket in addition to first wall components in addition to materials in a Fusion Environment Breeding Blankets/FWs will be tested in ITER, starting on Day One, by inserting Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in specially designed ports. Each TBM will have its own dedicated systems as long as tritium recovery in addition to processing, heat extraction, etc. Each TBM will also need new diagnostics as long as the nuclear-electromagnetic environment. Each ITER Party is allocated limited space as long as testing two TBMs. (Number of Ports reduced to 3. Number of Parties increased to 6). ITER’s construction plan includes specifications as long as TBMs because of impacts on space, vacuum vessel, remote maintenance, ancillary equipment, safety, availability, etc. The ITER Test Program is managed by the ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) with participants from the ITER International Team in addition to representatives of the Parties. What is the ITER TBM Program Blanket Testing in ITER is one of ITER’s Key Objectives Strong international collaboration among the ITER Parties is underway to provide the science basis in addition to engineering capabilities as long as ITER TBMs Bio-Shield Plug Cryostat Plug Transporter Cryostat Extension TBM Frame & Shield Plug Breeder Concentric Pipe Drain Pipe FW US Solid breeder submodule EU HCLL Test Module Conceptual Liquid Breeder Port Layout in addition to Ancillary equipment ITER’s Principal Objectives Have Always Included Testing Tritium Breeding Blankets “The ITER should serve as a test facility as long as neutronics, blanket modules, tritium production in addition to advanced plasma technologies. The important objectives will be the extraction of high-grade heat from reactor relevant blanket modules appropriate as long as generation of electricity.” —The ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee (QIC), IEA Vienna 18–19 October 1987 “ITER should test design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to a reactor. The tests as long as eseen in modules include the demonstration of a breeding capability that would lead to tritium self sufficiency in a reactor, the extraction of high-grade heat in addition to electricity generation.” —SWG1, reaffirmed by ITER Council, IC-7 Records (14–15 December 1994), in addition to stated again in as long as ming the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG)

ITER Blanket Testing is Essential to: Achieve a key element of the “ITER Mission” Establish the conditions governing the scientific feasibility of the D-T cycle, i.e., determine the “phase-space” window of plasma, nuclear, material, in addition to technological conditions in which tritium self-sufficiency can be attained – The D-T cycle is the basis of the current world plasma physics in addition to technology program. There is only a “window” of physics in addition to technology parameters in which the D-T cycle is feasible. (If the D-T cycle is not feasible the plasma physics in addition to technology research would be very different.) Examples of questions to be answered: Will tritium self-sufficiency allow low plasma-edge recycling Are advanced physics modes acceptable Is the “temperature window” as long as tritium release from solid breeders sufficient as long as adequate TBR Can circulated liquid metal breeders in addition to coolants be used Is there a blanket/material system that can exist in this phase-space Are nuclear predictive capabilities (codes, data) adequate to predict accurate TBR in realistic system ITER Blanket Testing is Essential to (cont’d): Achieve the most critical milestone in blanket in addition to material research: testing in the integrated fusion environment (ITER construction in addition to operation is as long as the next 30 years. Without such fusion testing, material in addition to blanket research loses “focus”, relevance: Why are we doing any research in these areas then) Develop the technology necessary to install breeding capabilities to supply ITER with tritium as long as its extended phase of operation Resolve the critical “tritium supply” issue as long as fusion development – in addition to at a fraction of the cost to buy tritium as long as large D-T burning plasma Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering is Critical to ITER in addition to to the US Fusion Program ITER will produce neutrons at a rate higher than any nuclear facility ever constructed (including operating fission reactors). It will have energetic neutrons, gamma rays, activated components, tritium, etc. Challenges in predicting the radiation field: Complex geometry, large system “Deep radiation penetration” problem in predicting dose to external components in addition to radiation exposure to personnel ITER base design changes, TBMs, port-based diagnostic packages, licensing, etc. will need more accurate nuclear simulation to ensure robust design, safe operation, in addition to correct interpretation of experimental results. US has been a leader in Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering as long as fusion. Work on ITER base device in addition to TBMs helps build US knowledge, experience in addition to competence needed to develop practical in addition to safe D-T fusion devices. (Building competence takes decades.)

Recent Progress in ITER TBM Program With the US rejoining ITER, the Blanket/Chamber community concluded that it is very important as long as the US to participate in the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program (March 2003). Extensive deliberations have occurred in the US since March 2003 among the community, DOE in addition to VLT. Reached consensus on a general framework as long as the direction of activities in the US Chamber/Blanket Program: Provide fusion nuclear technology (FNT) support as long as the basic ITER device as needed Participate in ITER TBM program in addition to redirect good part of resources toward R&D as long as TBM Encourage partners in international collaborations, such as IEA in addition to JUPITER-II, to focus more on ITER TBM Important work has been carried out to implement the strategy. A study of ITER TBM issues in addition to US options was initiated Some R&D was initiated Rejoined TBWG, strong participation The US interacted with all the other 5 parties to identify areas of collaboration US Plasma Chamber Systems/Blanket Ef as long as t has been redirected to support ITER What should the US Blanket Options be as long as ITER TBM This has been a central question as long as the US community during FY 2004. A study was initiated to select the two blanket options as long as the US ITER TBM in light of new R&D results from the US in addition to world programs over the past decade. Key conclusions reached early in the study: Selection between solid in addition to liquid breeders can not be made prior to fusion testing in ITER. All Liquid Breeder Options have serious feasibility (“Go/No-Go”) issues, but potential as long as higher per as long as mance. More assessment needed. Solid breeders are accepted by all parties. For the past year, the study has focused mostly on assessment of the critical feasibility issues as long as liquid breeder concepts. Examples of issues are MHD insulators, MHD effects on heat transfer, tritium permeation, corrosion, SiC insert viability, in addition to compatibility. The study has been led by the Plasma Chamber community with strong participation of the Materials, Safety in addition to PFC Programs. Many international “Experts” in key areas participated in several meetings in addition to provided important input.

US Selected Options as long as ITER TBM Select a helium-cooled solid breeder concept with ferritic steel structure in addition to neutron multiplier, but without an independent TBM. Support EU in addition to Japan using their designs in addition to their TBM structure in addition to ancillary equipment. Contribute only unit cell in addition to sub-module test articles that focus on particular technical issues of unique US expertise in addition to of interest to all parties. (All ITER Parties have this concept as one of their options.) Focus on testing Dual-Coolant liquid breeder blanket concepts with potential as long as self-cooling. Develop in addition to design TBM with flexibility to test one or both of these two options: a helium-cooled ferritic structure with self-cooled LiPb breeder zone that uses SiC insert as MHD in addition to thermal insulator (insulator requirements in dual-coolant concepts are less dem in addition to ing than those as long as self-cooled concepts); a helium-cooled ferritic structure with low melting-point molten salt. Because of the low electrical in addition to thermal conductivity of molten salts, no insulators are needed. (The key issues as long as MS are being addressed under JUPITER-II in addition to no additional work is planned under ITER-TBM.) Helium-Cooled Pebble Breeder Concept as long as EU The US can provide small breeder units “inside” the EU SB structure. US Issues: Tritium Release in addition to Thermomechanical Interactions ITER Test Blanket Module Activities Active participation in ITER test blanket working group (TBWG) as long as test in addition to infrastructure planning WSG participation Ancillary equipment in addition to machine interface definition Evaluate blanket options as long as DEMO in addition to evaluate R&D results as long as key issues to select primary US blanket concepts Per as long as m concurrently R&D on the most critical issues required MHD flow with insulators in addition to inserts Tritium recovery in addition to control SiC inserts compatibility in addition to failure modes Solid breeder / multiplier / structure / coolant interactions Develop engineering scaling in addition to design, in collaboration with ITER partners, as long as TBMs.

Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) TBWG was proposed by SWG-1 in addition to established by the ITER Council (IC-7 RECORDS, 14-15 December 1994) A as long as mal in addition to detailed charter of TBWG was developed During EDA, the US made major contributions to testing strategy, engineering scaling, test port, frame design, in addition to machine interface TBWG Main Objectives: Develop a Coordinated Blanket Test Program in addition to address the Interface between machine in addition to the blanket modules The TBWG was re-established in new conditions (6 partners) in late 2003 in addition to has had 3 meetings in FY04 Provide the design documentation as long as the assessment of TBMs prepared by the Parties, integration of TBMs into the ITER machine Promote cooperation among the ITER Parties’ TBMs Verify integration of the TBMs in the safety in addition to environmental evaluations of each ITER c in addition to idate site Further develop the coordinated blanket test program TBWG Scope of Activities: Two types of Solid Breeder TBMs have been studied in FY04 Various analyses have been per as long as med as long as TBM designs to preserve key prototype parameters

Sophisticated 2-D neutronics analysis shows testing objective can be achieved as long as a proposed NT TBM Proposed NT TBM JA TBM Tritium production profiles are nearly flat over a reasonable distance in the toroidal direction allowing accurate measurements be per as long as med Finding: Flat nuclear heating in addition to tritium production profiles allow two designs to be evaluated in a ¼ port submodule The reason fusion pursued high temperature structural materials is as long as high coolant temperature. MHD effects in high-velocity channel flows leads to very high primary stresses. IDEA of the Dual Coolant Concept FS/He/PbLi Dual Coolant Blanket Concept: Higher Per as long as mance Potential with current generation ferritic structure Cool structure with He so that FS can be used. “Decouple” surface from bulk heating. Flow PbLi as long as self-cooling at low velocity Use a SiC insert to electrically in addition to thermally insulate the LM from the wall, so LM bulk temperature can be higher than the wall temperature (use the poor thermal in addition to electrical conductivity of SiC as an advantage). Result: potential as long as high bulk temperature with lower MHD pressure drop using Ferritic Steel. Self-Cooled Breeder Zone ARIES-ST DCLL Breeder Unit Dual Coolant concepts proposed by ARIES in addition to EU Structure, Insert, in addition to Breeder Temperatures Temperature drop across the FCI is 175 C FS grid

Complex geometry MHD codes already being applied to DCLL blanket with SiC Flow Channel Inserts 2D in addition to 3D codes (developed as long as Liquid walls) have been modified as long as DCLL Initial results show strong sidelayer jets at SiC = 500 S/m with current DCLL design 2D in addition to 3D codes give conflicting results concerning flow in the “stagnant” gap region. Code improvements in addition to debugging, in addition to continued simulations planned as long as FY05. Slice from 3D Simulation Velocity profile from 2D Simulation Strong negative flow jet near pressure equalization slot not seen in 3D simulation Gap corner jets not seen in 2D simulation Study of DCLL system in addition to SiC FCI feasibility has shown: SiC flow channel inserts in DCLL systems have an interesting combination of effects that reduce pressure drop as compared to self-cooled LM systems Sensitivity to flaws in addition to flow in complex geometry flow elements will dominate pressure drop in addition to must be carefully examined Flow balancing technique must be analyzed in addition to tested in more detail. SiC FCI properties in addition to fabrication must be established more definitively Compatibility of FCI in a PbLi/RAFM steel system is a critical development issue Compatibility in addition to corrosion are linked issues with DCLL design in addition to MHD behavior More definitive first in addition to second level compatibility experiments in addition to modeling are necessary – definition of needed experiments could be an IEA Liquid Breeder Topic Tritium control is a key issue which will also be affected by the baseline MHD in addition to subsequent FCI compatibility in addition to corrosion Effective DCLL testing in ITER is possible in addition to desirable MHD testing building towards integrated FCI per as long as mance Synergism with EU PbLi in addition to RAFM program, Scaling in addition to test program planning in the US underway Technical Details from the US ITER-TBM ef as long as ts this year were presented at ANS TOFE Meeting in Madison e.g. Abdou, “US Plans in addition to Strategy as long as ITER Blanket Testing” Morley, “Thermofluid Magnetohydrodynamic Issues as long as Liquid Breeders” Ying, “Engineering Scaling Requirements as long as Solid Breeder Blanket Testing” Smolentsev, “MHD Effects on Heat Transfer in a Molten Salt Blanket Youssef, “Activation Analysis as long as Two Molten Salt Dual-Coolant Blanket Concepts as long as the US Demo Reactor” Wong, “Assessment of Liquid Breeder First Wall in addition to Blanket Options as long as the Demo Design” Sawan, “Neutronics Assessment of Molten Salt Breeding Blanket Design Options” Youssef, “On the Strategy in addition to Requirements as long as Neutronics Testing in ITER“

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J2 thermofluid experiments establish reference database as long as molten salt turbulence in addition to heat transfer Careful turbulence measurements using PIV technique show excellent agreement with Direct Numerical Simulation in near wall in addition to in channel core (see figs right ) Heat transfer reference cases also showing good agreement with st in addition to ard correlations. Special 2T gap magnet with unobstructed viewing access as long as laser diagnostics designed in addition to nearing completion. To be installed at UCLA in Dec. 2004. Re = 5286 Re = 11,300 Re stress Re stress Ave Velocity Ave Velocity Two types of Solid Breeder TBMs have been studied in FY04 Simulation in addition to experimental measurement of CERAMIC BREEDER PEBBLE BEDs Due to the high stress at the local contact area, especially at the high temperature, creep de as long as mation occurs. Discrete Element Method (DEM) is able to capture thermal de as long as mation characteristics in addition to can provide the detail stress distribution inside the pebble beds at both steady in addition to transient states. Force distribution in the pebble bed simulated by DEM – line width gives a measure of contact as long as ce

Lithium Ceramic (Solid Breeders) Pebble Bed thermal conductivity data collected from all world fusion program experiments Significant work this year at UCLA to design an experimental apparatus to measure effective conductivity of Li-ceramic pebble bed as long as temp. (400 to 850C) interface conductance as long as temp. up to 550C. Published studies show a wide spread in data, little error analysis, in addition to conflicting temperature dependence Issues in addition to Recommended Approaches Tritium Self-Sufficiency Tritium self-sufficiency condition: a > r r = Required tritium breeding ratio r is 1 + G, where G is the margin required to account as long as tritium losses, radioactive decay, tritium inventory in plant components, in addition to supplying inventory as long as start-up of other plants. r is dependent on many system physics in addition to technology parameters: plasma edge recycling, tritium fractional burn-up in the plasma tritium inventories (release/retention) in components efficiency/capacity/reliability of the tritium processing system, etc. a = Achievable tritium breeding ratio a is a function of technology, material in addition to physics. FW thickness, amount of structure in the blanket, blanket concept (ITER detailed engineering is showing FW may have to be much thicker than we want as long as T self sufficiency) Presence of stabilizing/conducting shell materials/coils as long as plasma control in addition to attaining advanced plasma physics modes Plasma heating/fueling/exhaust, PFC coating/materials/geometry Plasma configuration (tokamak, stellerator, etc.) Uncertainties in nuclear data required as long as accurate determination of TBR For a few million dollars’ expenditure on test blanket modules, we will acquire vital data in addition to develop critical technologies – an additional excellent return on the billions of dollars invested in ITER.

Recommended approaches to increased effectiveness Programmatic Issues Requiring DOE, VLT, in addition to US ITER Management Attention Include ITER-TBM in addition to Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering in US ITER Organization a “box/area” as long as TBM in the Organizational Chart this is essential to keep ITER link as long as TBMs that will influence basic machine design in addition to building space budget from DOE can remain separate from ITER construction funds a “box/area” as long as Nuclear Science in addition to Engineering Small budget should come from ITER funds to support US procurement packages in diagnostics, module 18, etc. Recognize ITER-TBM as a US Program in addition to organize it as a community ef as long as t Led by Plasma Chamber but with major contributions from Materials Program in addition to significant contributions from PFC, Safety, in addition to Tritium Programs Form Steering Committee with members from TBWG , Plasma Chamber, Materials, PFC, Safety, etc. Programmatic Issues Requiring DOE, VLT, in addition to US ITER Management Attention (Cont.) Resources Needed Technical expertise is available Required financial resources will be estimated over the next few months, but preliminary estimates show they are modest, not much beyond present budgets (mostly “refocus” in addition to “rebalance” with modest increases) Resources consist of: annual R&D: starting now; already started under Plasma Chamber with some support from Materials, Safety , in addition to PFC. Need to do more under other programs. Need a lot more from the Material Program in particular (discussions to refocus parts of Materials to serve ITER-TBM needs is underway) cost of constructing Test Articles (to be inserted in ITER): needed 7 years from now . It is modest in addition to can be adjusted based on the role US wants to play.

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