Japanese Encounters Japan TOPICS First Contact with Portugal Dutch

Japanese Encounters Japan TOPICS First Contact with Portugal Dutch www.phwiki.com

Japanese Encounters Japan TOPICS First Contact with Portugal Dutch

Estall, Lisa, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Japanese Encounters The closure of Japan in addition to Dutch traders Japan Gokasho are 5 most important ports Much domestic maritime trade – no instant mention of overseas. Kyusho in Nagasaki is in far reaches of territory – cannot easily be reached by outsiders Barred from importing goods from as long as eigners This few merchants in addition to l in addition to ed classes – mainly subsistence labourers However it is a good port so acts as base as long as the few as long as eigners who are permitted. After massacre of Christians in 1638, no other as long as eigners allowed in without permission VERY CLOSED OFF

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1688 – Governor as long as as long as eign presence. In 1688 another governor introduced specifically to monitor rising as long as eign presence. Their attitude to as long as eign trade is to exploit to their benefit in addition to to the detriment of the as long as eigners. All as long as eigners, not just Japanese, have to submit to the total control of governors It is his responsibility to direct as long as eign trade. They are suspicious that all as long as eign presence could be troublesome in addition to thus it is monitored strictly. Especially development of Christianity – evidently seen as ideological intruder. Only have very basic level of interpretation of as long as eign languages. No real ef as long as t made by interpreters to really learn them, just basics Reflects lack of desire to ACCOMDATE FOREIGNERS. Guard battalions used to keep as long as eigners in check. When as long as eign vessels arrive they are monitored by gaurad barges as long as duration of stay. Very thorough control of all areas – strict preventative measures to avoid any outbreak of struggle.a Almost like police state – guards on streets TOPICS Portuguese Reaction to the Portuguese Dutch Were the Japanese open to the Dutch Daily Life Religion First Contact with Portugal The first contact occurred in 1543 when a Portuguese ship was as long as ced ashore on Japan’s western coast. Commercial relations were established soon afterwards. From 1600 onward, Japan started to participate actively in as long as eign trade. During the Tokugawa Era (1603-1867), early European travellers from several nations encountered the work-ethos of previously secluded Japan. Of the contemporary Dutch sources, the first, Francois Caron, was a Hugenot merchant who reached Japan around 1620 in addition to stayed as long as almost 20 years. Until 1635, the Shogun issued numerous permits as long as the so-called “red seal ships” destined as long as the Asian trade. http://media3.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/photo/2007/07/19/PH2007071900616.jpg La Carabela – Sailing ships used by Spanish in addition to Portuguese explorers in the 1400-1500s.

Reaction against Portuguese attempts to penetrate Japan after 1639 In 1640 two Portuguese envoys sent from Macao were immediately arrested. 61 of the 73 persons were beheaded, 12 of the lowliest were sent to return to report their treatment in addition to to communicate that even the Portuguese king or Christian God would receive no different treatment – their message never arrived back Story of a three decked galleon anchoring near Nagasaki, greedily gathering gold, silver in addition to precious Japanese goods. Japanese gathered large as long as ce of people in addition to innumerable ships, seeking to exterminate all the as long as eigners. The crew defended themselves fiercely blowing up Japanese soldiers, in addition to the skirmish lasted half a day in addition to cost at least 3000 Japanese lives to kill all the crew. After the Portuguese were expelled it left only the Dutch trading with Japan. They kept to trade rather than getting involved in religion. Dutch The first Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan was the “Liefde ” (“Charity” or “Love”); it was one of the five that originally left Rotterdam on June 27, 1598, in addition to the only one to arrive safely in Japan – on April 19, 1600. The Portuguese had first arrived in Japan in 1543, so contacts between Japan in addition to the Netherl in addition to s were not the oldest in addition to longest Japan had enjoyed with a western country. Contacts with Asian countries such as Korea, China in addition to Taiwan naturally went back to much earlier times. However, during the `sakoku-jidai`, the so-called seclusion period, Holl in addition to in addition to China were the only countries permitted to trade in addition to have limited contacts with Japan. It was a status which actually lasted over two centuries, from 1641 to 1853, in addition to as the only western country with such privileges, Holl in addition to held a very special position. It was the door through which knowledge on science in addition to medicine, in addition to products in addition to armaments from the Netherl in addition to s in addition to Europe were imported into Japan through the Dutch settlement on Deshima, the man-made fan-shaped isl in addition to in the Bay of Nagasaki. Simultaneously the Dutch generated great wealth exporting Japanese products in addition to knowledge to the west. For both sides, Deshima was more than just a window on a new world. www.mfa.nl/tok-en/ dutch-japanese View on Nagasaki Bay in addition to the articial isl in addition to of Deshima.

Japanese Map of Dutch Factory http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/titsingh-dutch.jpg Osaka painting of Dutch VOC ship. www.swaen.com Japan was ‘open’ to Dutch but with very strict conditions Had to refrain from all as long as ms of outward Christian devotion Had to live under constant inspection from guards – ‘confined in addition to imprisoned’ Had to be completely ‘subservient’ – no cost was too great as long as the Dutch in order to satisfy the Japanese court – in particular the Dutch sought to meet their dem in addition to as long as the strange in addition to unique animals of Persia, India in addition to Europe in order to maintain the commercial relationship. Had to refrain from all as long as ms of smuggling Were not allowed to send messages to relatives, or send letters out of the country without them being noted down in Japanese. Were only allowed to leave their compound very rarely, in addition to often under unofficial or false pretences that was against the will of the Japanese court. Had to behave properly in accordance with the dem in addition to s of the locality in addition to nation

DAILY LIFE Strict entrance procedure (Book 1; Chapter 2; “We arrive in Japan”) Tight Security (Book1; Chapter 2; “The Japanese Muster the People on Our Ship”) Took possession of the ship in addition to all possessions on board (Book1; Chapter 2; “They take possession of the Ship”) Respect as long as Japanese customs (Book1; Chapter 2; “they read us orders everybody’s eyes”. Confined to quarters at night. Had to communicate in Portuguese. The Dutch weren’t allowed to learn Japanese. Everything had to go through translators. (Om Prakash) Very limited in what commodities were allowed into or out of Japan. Religion Destruction of Christians at Shimabara in 1638, the Dutch had to denounce Christianity or they too be banished. Dutch hours of prayer in addition to singing were abolished in addition to in 1641. When all native Christians were exterminated in addition to all Spaniards/Portuguese had been banished, the Dutch too had to vacate Hirado to be imprisoned on another isl in addition to built in harbour of Nagasaki. Christian religion regarded as a plague besetting the country. The Dutch, as enemies of Spanish in addition to Portuguese, were permitted to stay but had no freedom. Portuguese brought Jesuits into Japan. The japanese were worried that they would bond with the a small group of Christians already in Japan. Japanese saw Portuguese Jesuit groups as a threat. First banned Christianity in 1587. Relations got worse leading to Japanese expelling all Jesuits 1614. In 1636 promulgation of the Sakoku or closed country edict banning Japanese ships from going to as long as eign ports in addition to adding stricter controls to ships coming in to Japan. In 1639 Portuguese were expelled from the country in addition to ordered never to return. Japanese let the Dutch in because they were re as long as med Christians in addition to the Dutch were concentration on trade. Wouldn’t let the English trade with them despite them being re as long as med Christians because of their links with Portugal. This shows they associated the Portuguese with religion which made them very wary. All religious symbols/texts had to be hidden be as long as e going into Japanese ports: (Book 1; Chapter 2; “I need to mention ” Inspections as long as religious symbols: (Book 1; Chapter 2: “they also inspected his chest ” Strict Ports Japanese dem in addition to ed highly over the top dem in addition to s. Such as bringing in strange animals. Paying unreasonable prices. The Dutch appear to do anything to make sure that their relationship with the Japanese was on good terms. In relation to Portuguese who showed little respect.

Sources Engelbert Kaempfer, Kaempfer’s Japan Tokugawa Culture Observed. Om Prakash, ‘Trade in a Culturally Hostile Environment: Europeans in the Japan Trade, 1550-1700’ in O. Prakash (ed.), European Commercial Expansion in Early Modern Asia. Susan B Hanley, Everyday Things in Premodern Japan; the Hidden Legacy of Material Culture. Michael Copper (ed.), They Came to Japan: A anthology of European Reports on Japan, 1543-1640.

Estall, Lisa Babycenter.com Contributing Editor www.phwiki.com

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