Justin Albert Caltech & Univ. of Victoria Aug. 7, 2006 : A Tunable Laser in Spac

Justin Albert Caltech & Univ. of Victoria Aug. 7, 2006 : A Tunable Laser in Spac www.phwiki.com

Justin Albert Caltech & Univ. of Victoria Aug. 7, 2006 : A Tunable Laser in Spac

Lockhart, Larry, News Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Justin Albert Caltech & Univ. of Victoria Aug. 7, 2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space Dark Energy Atmospheric Physics National Security Limitations on our Knowledge of Dark Energy Calibration of redshift is a significant uncertainty in cosmological parameter measurement. Unless we improve calibration st in addition to ards to < 1%, this will be a limiting systematic as long as upcoming projects Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 2 Underst in addition to ing the Acceleration of the Universe in addition to others Launch date ~2013 First data ~2011 First data next year ! Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 3 Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne US www.phwiki.com

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Systematic Uncertainties are the Key Minimizing uncertainties on these cosmological parameters is largely a matter of keeping systematic uncertainties at a minimum (especially flux as a function of redshift). From Kim, Linder, Miquel, & Mostek (MNRAS, 2004): Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 4 The Same Applies to Weak Gravitational Lensing The 3 main techniques as long as measuring the cosmological parameters: using type Ia supernovae (“st in addition to ard c in addition to les”: measure luminosity in addition to redshift), weak gravitational lensing (shapes of galaxies “lensed” by as long as eground matter, as a function of their redshift), in addition to “baryon oscillations” (ripples are present in the distribution of galaxies, as a function of redshift). All require superb redshift (spectrophotometric) calibration. From Bernstein & Jain (ApJ, 2004): Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 5 And Atmospheric Science Applications The CALIPSO satellite (launched on Apr. 23 of this year) uses an Nd:YAG LIDAR laser at 1064 in addition to 532 nm to measure the properties of clouds in addition to the atmosphere. A tunable laser ( in addition to LIDAR receiver) could provide in as long as mation in a far greater range of wavelengths. Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 6

Improving Fundamental Calibration Not Easy Need to get above the ATMOSPHERE Idea: Rockets (ACCESS) Another possibility: Balloons But even after you very carefully calibrate them, stars are VARIABLE (majority on the > 1% scale). Wouldn’t it be nice to just have a (man-made) source up there Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 7 A Tunable Laser in Space Would allow atmospheric calibration as long as all major ground-based observatories (without any worries of stellar variability). A monochromatic source that covers the entire wavelength range (250 to 2500 nm) – avoids worries about differences between stars in addition to galaxies. Would provide an always-available fundamental spectrophotometric st in addition to ard source as long as space-based observatories (SNAP). Minimizes calibration transfers; precision is limited essentially only by radiometer uncertainty (only 0.01% !!) Cost could be reduced by placing on a satellite needed anyway (e.g. GPS-III [upgrade to GPS], TSAT, ). Military is traditionally very interested in lasers in space Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 8 Defense Applications Target illumination, as well as space communication. Variable wavelength (more difficult to detect / defend) Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 9

Straight From the Pentagon !! — Forwarded message — Date: Mon, 22 May 2006 13:00:52 -0400 From: Muslimov Alex in addition to er Ctr AF/A8XC To: justin@hep.caltech.edu Subject: your preprint Dr. Albert, I’ve just come across of your in addition to your collaborators’ preprint “Telescope Spectrophotometric in addition to Absolute Flux Calibration ” It sounds interesting to me, in addition to I believe you can come up with a somewhat more detailed presentation of your idea. If so, would you be interested in briefing our Directorate about your proposal at the Pentagon Are you going to be in the DC area sometime this summer/fall Although we don’t have our own resources to fund proposals, we collaborate with the AFRL, AFOSR, DARPA in addition to some other agencies, in addition to could help you to find the appropriate POCs within the USAF who might be interested in your proposal. I look as long as ward to hearing from you. Best regards, Alex Alex Muslimov, Ph.D. Staff Physicist HAF/A8XC Air Force Pentagon, Washington DC (703) 693-8476 AF/A8XC Mission: Explore, develop, advocate in addition to link future concepts, capabilities, promising technologies in addition to their program funding to continue trans as long as ming the Air Force into a more effective fighting as long as ce astro-ph/0604339 : Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 10 Tunable laser To be purchased on Sept. 1 (UVic startup funding) Opotek Vibrant LD 355 II Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 11 Toward a Space-Qualified Tunable Laser The CALIPSO satellite uses an Nd:YAG laser from Fibertek Inc. that (clearly) is space-qualified. Such a laser could potentially be used as a pump laser as long as an OPO (which would then itself need to be space-qualified). However, it would be nice to have a laser that is closer to CW rather than pulsed, as CW would be more similar to astronomical sources (galaxies, stars, supernovae) in addition to thus provide a better calibration. Eli Margalith (president, Opotek Inc., Carlsbad, CA) says that he may be able to develop a very fast-pulsed (i.e. MHz frquencies) OPO system, which would be similar to (in fact indistinguishable from) a CW source. Would need to diode-pumped (like the Fibertek laser – due to lifetime issues, as well as input power, a flashlamp is unsuitable as an optical pump in space), durable, tested, in addition to space qualified Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 12

Several Relatively Convenenient Plat as long as ms on 2012-2016 Timescale Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 13 To Do: Tunable Laser in addition to Diode Studies Radiation Tests: Survivability/Degradation at 20000 km. TRIUMF irradiation facility. Characterize beam divergence. Beam exp in addition to er optics. Explore options as long as eliminating moving parts (or momentum-balance when absolutely necessary), reducing cooling power. Electronics / power source requirements. 4-radiating source, etc. Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 14 Collaboration Started in addition to Growing Caltech DOE Review 8/7/2006 : A Tunable Laser in Space J. Albert 15

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