LArTPC: Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Context: Neutrinos in addition to

LArTPC: Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Context: Neutrinos in addition to www.phwiki.com

LArTPC: Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Context: Neutrinos in addition to

Murphy, Candace, Features Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal LArTPC: Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Context: Neutrinos in addition to Fermilab etc Status Report on LArTPC Activities Synopsis This talk presents some of the ef as long as ts of the LArTPC group which is pushing the development of large liquid argon TPCs. Our small group is currently composed of 6 University groups in addition to 6 Fermilab staff physicists, in addition to the number of people is growing. Large neutrino detectors, including large liquid argon TPCs, clearly are needed as long as upcoming neutrino experiments in addition to into the neutrino factory era. ICARUS The LArTPC group recognizes that the technical concept in addition to any possibility that such a detector may be feasible owes a huge debt to the work done by the ICARUS collaboration.

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Sensitivity = detector mass x detector efficiency x protons on target/yr x of years The Big Picture Electrons compared to p0’s at 1.5 GeV in LAr TPC p0 Multiple secondary tracks pointing back to the same primary vertex Each track is two electrons – 2 mip scale per hit Electrons Single track (mip scale) starting from a single vertex Dot indicates hit, color is collected charge green=1 mip, red=2 mips (or more) use both topology in addition to dE/dx to identify interactions cm cm cm cm X plane zoom in X plane zoom in U plane zoom in U plane zoom in The promise of liquid argon The promise of liquid argon

From Presentation by Jim Strait to Fermilab PAC June 20, 2005 Head of Particle Physics Division at Fermilab P. Oddone September 12, 2005 P. Oddone September 12, 2005

P. Oddone September 12, 2005 P. Oddone September 12, 2005 P. Oddone September 12, 2005 A Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam is part of a plan at Fermilab

LArTPC’s report to NuSAG Fermilab Note: FN-0776-E A Large Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber as long as Long-baseline, Off-Axis Neutrino Oscillation Physics with the NuMI Beam Submission to NuSAG September 15, 2005 D. Finley, D. Jensen, H. Jostlein, A. Marchionni, S. Pordes, P. A. Rapidis Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois C. Bromberg Michigan State University C. Lu, K. T. McDonald Princeton University H. Gallagher, A. Mann, J. Schneps Tufts University D. Cline, F. Sergiampietri, H. Wang University of Cali as long as nia at Los Angeles A. Curioni, B. T. Fleming Yale University S. Menary York University Contact Persons: B. T. Fleming in addition to P. A. Rapidis The Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group as long as the DOE/NSF Soon to be on the hep-ex preprint server NuMI Liquid Argon TPC Overview NuMI Liquid Argon TPC Overview Note: At this point in time “15” could be “50” “1” could be “3” etc

Aim is to produce a viable design as long as a 15 kt – 50 kt liquid argon detector. Basic concept follows ICARUS: TPC, drift ionization electrons to 3 sets of wires (2 induction, 1 collection) record signals on all wires with continuous wave as long as m digitizing electronics Differences aimed at making a multi-kton detector feasible; Construction of detector tank using industrial LNG tank as basic structure Long(er) signal wires Single device (not modular) Basic parameters: Drift distance – 3 meters; Drift field – 500 V/cm (gives vdrift = 1.5 m/ms) Wire planes – 3 (+/-300 in addition to vertical); wire spacing 5 mm; plane spacing 5 mm Number of signal channels ~ 100,000 (15kt), 220,000 (50kt) LRadiation = 14 cm, dE/dx = 2.1 MeV/cm, 55,000 electrons/cm liberated The Large Liquid Argon TPC Some Specific challenges: Argon: (long drift) purification – starting from atmosphere (cannot evacuate detector tank) – effect of tank walls & non-clean-room assembly process Wire-planes: long wires – mechanical robustness, tensioning, assembly, breakage/failure Signal processing: electronics – noise due to long wire in addition to connection cables (large capacitance) surface detector – data-rates, – automated cosmic ray rejection – automated event recognition in addition to reconstruction ( in addition to there are others as long as example, High Voltage) The Large Liquid Argon TPC Many large LNG tanks in service. excellent safety record Detector Tank based on Industrial Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage tanks

3D `Model’ cutaway 15 kt detector H V S i g n a l Changes from st in addition to ard LNG tank: inner tank wall thickness increased – LAr is 2 x density of LNG; trusses in inner tank to take load of the wires: penetrations as long as signals from inner tank to floor supported from roof of outer tank; The Large Liquid Argon TPC: Sketch Beam’s eye view showing the electrodes (cathode, field-cage in addition to wires) The Large Liquid Argon TPC: Beam’s Eye View Site Layout (very) Schematic – showing some of the services needed The Large Liquid Argon TPC: Site Features

On the way to the Large Liquid Argon TPC Note: At this point in time “15” could be “50” “1” could be “3” etc The Purposes of the “1 kton” tank Engineering Development to demonstrate scalability to large tank Construction of tank with the same techniques to be used with the large tank Demonstrate argon purity with the same techniques to be used with the large tank Mechanical integrity of TPC Readout signal / noise Microphonics due to argon flow Uncover whatever surprises there may be The Purposes of the “130 ton” detector (50 ton fiducial) Physics development using existing technology Record complete neutrino interactions (nm in addition to ne) in a high intensity beam Establish physics collaboration by: Developing event identification Developing reconstruction Developing analysis Establish successful technology transfer What Energy to pick

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NuMI Off-axis Neutrino Energy From the NOvA Proposal March 15, 2005 The event spectrum in the 14 mrad off-axis beam peaks at about 2 GeV, in addition to there are more events than at 0 mrad. CC nm event rate as long as : – NuMI “medium” energy beam No-oscillation hypothesis 800 km from Fermilab as long as various off-axis angles Pick 2 GeV. Where can we get 2 GeV today NuMI Beamline in addition to Surface Building From the NOvA Proposal March 15, 2005 The 130 ton LArTPC detector would go in or near the MINOS Surface Building. The NuMI decay pipe is 675 m long The MINOS Near Detector Hall is ~ 105 meters BELOW the Surface Building hadron absorber Top View Side View Electron Neutrinos in MINOS Surface Building NuMI is presently providing ~2E20 POT per year. The 130 ton LArTPC has a 50 ton fiducial mass. Thus the LArTPC detector would get ~1600 ne events / year.

Muon Neutrinos in MINOS Surface Building Same assumptions as previous slide, except this shows ~15,000 muon neutrinos. The nm peak at ~2.8 GeV is from Kaon decay. From the NOvA Proposal March 15, 2005 NuMI Liquid Argon TPC: Getting Started Test Samples Dewar Filter ICARUS purity monitor System at Fermilab as long as testing filter materials in addition to the contaminating effects of detector materials (e.g. tank-walls, cables) G. Carugno et al., NIM. A292 (1990 Materials Tests

Efficiency in addition to Rejection study Training samples: 50 events each of neCC, nmCC in addition to NC individual samples to train mixed samples to test training Blind scan of 450 events scored from 1-5 with signal=5 background=1 Neutrino event generator: NEUGEN3, used by MINOS/NOvA collaboration ( in addition to others) Hugh Gallagher (Tufts) is the principal author. GEANT 3 detector simulation (Hatcher, Para): trace resulting particles through a homogeneous volume of liquid argon. Store energy deposits in thin slices. Analysis was based on a blind scan of 450 events, carried out by 4 undergraduates with additional scanning of “signal” events by experts. open region: students hatched region: + experts Tufts University Group NC nmCC neCC log scale Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Signal ne Overall efficiencies, rejection factors, in addition to dependencies Efficiency is ~100% as long as y<0.5, in addition to ~50% above this Efficiency is substantial even as long as high multiplicity (DIS) events signal ne eff. y=Ehad/En Large Liquid Argon TPC as long as the NuMI Off-axis Beam Event type Overall efficiency 81% +/- 7% Rejection of NC is 73 (+60,-30) Bartoszek Engineering Work funded by DOE Advanced Detector Research Grant LArTPC work underway at Yale How good are these detectors at IDing low (~1 GeV) energy n interactions underst in addition to the technology purity studies underst in addition to detector response at very low energies study combination of charge in addition to light production as long as particle ID Constructing small prototype vessel this summer

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