Learning Objectives Learning Objectives (cont) Learning Objectives (cont) Outline Energy Requirements Vary with Activity
Montini, Ed, Metro Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chemistry in addition to the Gym Learning Objectives Exercise can be aerobic (sustained physical activity with O2) or anaerobic (bursts of ef as long as t that do not have sufficient O2 to metabolize fuels). The aerobic pathway is much more efficient than the anaerobic pathway at producing ATP to power muscle movement. The rate at which oxygen is delivered to the muscles (VO2 max) is one of the limits to the level of aerobic activity. Learning Objectives (cont) Athletic training results in a number of adaptations that increase muscle efficiency in addition to delivery of fuel in addition to oxygen to the tissues. Some individuals may have thrifty genes that result in decreased energy expenditure as long as basic life functions. Exercise can help increase energy output, even in the resting state. Exercise lowers the risk of some chronic diseases.
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Learning Objectives (cont) Strategies to improve athletic per as long as mance include increasing delivery of fuel in addition to /or oxygen to the muscles. Illegitimate per as long as mance enhancers include anabolic steroids in addition to human growth hormone to build muscle mass in addition to erythropoietin in addition to blood doping to improve oxygen delivery. Outline The Molecular Basis of Exercise Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Activity ATP, the Cells Energy Currency, is called adenosine triphosphate Fuels that Power Exercise Primarily fats in addition to carbohydrates (glucose or glycogen). Energy Requirements Vary with Activity
Fuel Reserves as long as a Typical 70-kg Male Many of the carbon atoms in glucose have OH substituents Glycolysis ADP Adenosine diphosphate 1st stage in the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP is glycolysis (greek words means sweet in addition to splitting)
Outline The Molecular Basis of Exercise (cont) Mobilization of Fuels During glycolysis, glucose is oxidized to pyruvate in addition to ATP is produced. Pyruvate can be oxidized in the efficient aerobic pathway (cellular respiration) or converted to lactic acid in the anaerobic pathway (fermentation). The rate at which oxygen is delivered to the muscles (VO2 max) dictates the level of activity that can be sustained under aerobic conditions. Alternate Fates of Pyruvate Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria, the cells powerhouse. It traps the maximum amount of chemical energy stored within a molecule of glucose, generating an additional 30 molecules of ATP per pair of pyruvate molecules. Gerty in addition to Carl Cori, 1947 Nobel Prize winners Credit: Corbis In 1947, they shared the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine as long as their work on glucose metabolism, including characterizing the relationship between liver in addition to muscle glycogen stores.
Path of glucose metabolism During anaerobic metabolism, muscle glycogen is converted to glucose in addition to then to lactic acid, which circulates to the liver, where it is converted back to glycogen. When needed, the liver replenishes blood glucose, which is taken up by the muscles to as long as m glycogen, completing the cycle. Energy Sources as long as Powering Muscles During Exercise Credit: P. L. Greenhaff, E. Hultman, in addition to R. C. Harris. In J. R. Poortmans (ed.), Principles of Exercise Biochemistry, 3rd. rev. ed. Basel: Karger, 2004, pp. 108151. VO2 max is determined by measuring oxygen exhaled Credit: Photo Researchers, Inc. VO2 max is determined in the laboratory by measuring the amount of oxygen exhaled, allowing the calculation of how much is consumed. There as long as e determinants of VO2 max include the hematocrit (the percentage of red cells in a volume of blood)
Outline The Chemistry of Muscles Muscle Contraction ATP powers muscle contraction, in which the thick filaments (made of the protein myosin) slide past the thin filaments (made of the protein actin). Types of Muscle Fibers Slow-twitch muscle fibers, which are enriched in myoglobin, are designed as long as aerobic activity. Fast-twitch muscle fibers, which lack myoglobin, are designed as long as anaerobic activity. Muscle Contraction Muscles are made up of the proteins myosin in addition to actin. The muscle protein myoglobin picks up oxygen from hemoglobin in addition to delivers it to the mitochondria as long as use in cellular respiration. 2 types of muscle fibers: Type I or slow-twitch muscle fibers are designed as long as aerobic activity because they contract slowly in addition to steadily. Type II or fast-twitch muscle fibers are designed as long as anaerobic activity. They are stronger in addition to larger than Type I Outline Physiological Aspects of Exercise Endurance (Aerobic) Training Slow-twitch muscles become larger. Amounts of myoglobin in addition to mitochondria in the muscles increase. VO2 max increases. Levels of key enzymes as long as fat metabolism increase. Glycogen stores increase.
Outline Physiological Aspects of Exercise (cont) Anaerobic Training Fast-twitch muscles become larger. Stores of ATP, phosphocreatine, in addition to glycogen increase. Capacity as long as lactic acid increases. Levels of key enzymes as long as glycolysis increase. Outline Physiological Aspects of Exercise (cont) Depletion of Energy Reserves When carbohydrate stores are exhausted, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels) set in. Hormones Chemical signals that mediate metabolic changes that occur during exercise; e.g., adrenaline prepares as long as fight or flight Examples of Hormones Involved in Exercise
Outline Physiological Aspects of Exercise (cont) Runners High Endorphins are natural painkillers (made by the body) produced during times of physical stress. Sex Differences Women generally have greater fat stores than men, making them well suited as long as aerobic endurance events. Outline Exercise in addition to Weight Control Energy Balance Energy In = Food Consumed Energy Out = Exercise, Basal Metabolism, Thermogenesis The Thrifty Gene Hypothesis Thrifty genes may allow some individuals to maintain life processes with very little food intake. Thrifty gene effects may be related to the hormone leptin. Effect of Leptin on Body Mass Leptin is a peptide hormone that mediates body weight, metabolism, in addition to reproduction.
Outline Exercise in addition to Chronic Disease The risk factors as long as many chronic diseases, including heart disease in addition to diabetes are decreased by exercise. Outline Legal Per as long as mance Enhancers Carbo-Loading Increases glycogen stores, delaying the onset of hypoglycemia Carnitine Escorts fatty acids into the mitochondria as long as oxidation, maximizing fat burning in addition to conserving glycogen. Carnitine
Outline Legal Per as long as mance Enhancers (cont) Creatine Increases stores of phosphocreatine, the muscles quickest energy source Electrolyte-Replacement (Gatorade) Provides water, essential electrolytes, in addition to carbohydrates Altitude Training Increases the number of red blood cells (the hematocrit) in addition to the amount of hemoglobin Composition of Various ERG Beverages Electrolyte replacement glucose (ERG) is a beverage that supplies water, electrolytes, in addition to carbohydrates. Outline Illegal Per as long as mance Enhancers Improving Oxygen Delivery Blood Doping: red blood cells are removed several weeks prior to competition; body responds by making more red blood cells; right be as long as e competition, athlete receives a blood transfusion. Erythropoietin (EPO): hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells
Anabolic Steroids Key Words Aerobic Anaerobic ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Adipose tissue Glycolysis Cellular respiration Fermentation VO2 max Hematocrit Slow-twitch muscle fibers (Type I) Fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II) Hypoglycemia Hormones Endorphins Leptin Hyperthermia Erythropoietin (EPO) Anabolic steroids Testosterone Human growth hormone (hGH)
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