Learning Objectives Learning Objectives (cont) Learning Objectives (cont) Three ways in which carbon can fulfill its octet
Corella, Hipolito, Metro Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Organic chemistry is the study of the properties of the compounds of carbon. Just about everything in this world has carbon, C, in it! Learning Objectives Organic molecules as long as m the basis as long as life in addition to include many natural products with medicinal properties. After the structure of a biologically active compound is determined, organic chemists can often synthesize the compound, as well as new derivatives with more powerful activities. Learning Objectives (cont) Most organic compounds contain a hydrocarbon framework containing chains of carbon atoms in addition to bonded hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbons). Hydrocarbons are classified according to types of carbon-carbon bonds. Alkanes contain only single bonds, alkenes contain at least one double bond, alkynes contain at least one triple bond, in addition to aromatics are rings that contain alternating single in addition to double bonds.
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Learning Objectives (cont) Adding different atoms or groups of atoms (functional groups) to a hydrocarbon results in new classes of compounds with distinctive chemical properties. The geometric arrangement of atoms within an organic compound determines its activity. Two mirror-image molecules (enantiomers) with the same chemical as long as mula in addition to connections of the atoms can have different biological activities. General Properties of Organic Compounds Review of Carbon Carbon has four electrons in its outer shell in addition to there as long as e can as long as m four covalent bonds. Polarity Organic molecules contain many nonpolar C-H bonds in addition to are there as long as e generally hydrophobic. Three ways in which carbon can fulfill its octet
Effect of differences in electronegativity on charge distribution General Properties of Organic Compounds Intermolecular Forces Small hydrocarbons interact through relatively weak London as long as ces in addition to there as long as e tend to be gases at room temperature. Melting in addition to Boiling Points of Hydrocarbons
General Properties of Organic Compounds Intermolecular Forces Large hydrocarbons in addition to those containing bonded polar atoms are often liquids or solids at room temperature. Organic molecules containing bonded polar atoms are generally more water soluble than those containing only carbon in addition to hydrogen. (Like dissolves like.) Water Solubility of Alcohols vs. Alkanes OH groups can make a molecule, with less than 8 carbons, water soluble Natural Products Some compounds found in nature (natural products) have interesting properties, such as medicinal activity. Once the structure of a natural product is determined, chemists may seek to synthesize the compound in the laboratory. Parent compounds, like salicin, serve as the structural basis as long as new synthetic molecules (derivatives or analogues).
Synthesis of Derivatives The willow tree, source of the active ingredient of aspirin The Pacific yew tree, source of taxol A molecule with powerful Anticancer activity! Types of Hydrocarbons Alkanes: contain only single carbon-carbon bonds Alkenes: contain at least one double carbon-carbon bond Alkynes: contain at least one triple carbon-carbon bond Aromatics: ringed hydrocarbons with alternating single in addition to double bonds between carbons.
Examples of Straight-Chain Alkanes Reduction of hydrocarbons vs. oxidation Reactivity of Alkanes Hydrocarbon + O2 carbon dioxide + water + heat energy D Ex. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O D Heat released is 802 kJ/mol of methane Effect of partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon, lets look at the combustion reaction of CH3OH (methanol), in which 1 H has been replaced by an OH group. 2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O Heat released is 640 kJ/mol of methanol (1.5 moles of O2 required to with 1 mole of CH3OH!) D
These reactions illustrates two important principles. 1st, the more reduced a molecule, the more energy is released during oxidation on a molar basis. Methane is fully reduced in addition to gives off more energy during combustion than methanol. 2nd, the number of oxygen molecules required to react with a fuel molecule gives an estimate of how much energy is available. More highly reduced molecules require more oxygen during combustion in addition to produce more energy. Examples of cycloalkanes Cyclopentane C5H10 The simplest alkene, ethylene
Saturated fats contain three alkane chains, unsaturated fats three alkene chains Cis in addition to trans refer to different geometries in two isomers Trans Fatty Acids in Some Common Food Products
The as long as mation of trans double bonds, hydrogenation Polymerization: white plastic water bottles Credit: Courtesy of Nalgene monomers The simplest alkyne, acetylene
Benzene Naphthalene, in mothballs Anthracene, in insecticides in addition to wood preservatives Aromatics Compounds, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons A process by which chemical contamination increases within organisms higher up the food chain. Functional Groups are groups of atoms that contribute to the properties of an organic compound Organic Halides ex. CH3-X (X = Cl, Br, I, or F) Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups Ethers Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters
Enantiomers Enantiomers are like a pair of gloves: similar shapes that have h in addition to edness in addition to are Nonsuperimposable R vs S enantiomers Key Words Organic chemistry Hydrophobic Parent compound Derivative/analogue Hydrocarbons Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatic Saturated Cycloalkanes Unsaturated Cis isomer Trans isomer Polymer Monomer
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