LEARNING OBJECTIVES Today’s Situation Immunization Providing an ineffective vaccine is worse than providing no vaccine at all.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Today’s Situation Immunization Providing an ineffective vaccine is worse than providing no vaccine at all. www.phwiki.com

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Today’s Situation Immunization Providing an ineffective vaccine is worse than providing no vaccine at all.

Puglise, Joe, General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal A doctor per as long as ming typhoid vaccination, 1943. HOST DEFENSES (IMMUNITY) By DR Mohammad Ayaz MBBS, MPH, MSc Associate Professor & Head Of Dept, Community Medicine LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the EPI Program. Enlist various vaccines used in EPI. Explain Cold Chain in addition to its importance.

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Today’s Situation 10.5 million infant in addition to childhood deaths each year in the developing world 70% are due to five conditions: pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria, in addition to malnutrition. At least 3/4 of all childhood illness episodes are caused by one of these conditions 4 million neonatal deaths annually. Two thirds of neonatal mortality occur in the first week of life, of these two thirds die within the first 24 hours of life Immunization Quality in addition to Safety Providing an ineffective vaccine is worse than providing no vaccine at all.

Immunization Vaccine potency Proper vaccine h in addition to ling Proper conditions in addition to Use of Vaccine Vial Monitors Safe injection practices Clean work space H in addition to washing Sterile needle in addition to syringe as long as each injection Assuring sterile vaccines in addition to diluents. Appropriate sharps in addition to waste collection in addition to disposal Vaccine-PREVENTABLE Diseases Anthrax Cervical Cancer Diphtheria Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Influenza (Flu) Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Lyme Disease Measles Meningococcal Monkeypox Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Poliomyelitis (Polio) Rabies Rotavirus Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Smallpox Tetanus (Lockjaw) Tuberculosis Typhoid Fever Varicella (Chickenpox) Yellow Fever Definition Immunization (vaccination) is a way to trigger your immune system in addition to prevent serious, life-threatening diseases. Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen.

Vaccination Vaccination (Latin: vacca—cow) is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting cows, which provides a degree of immunity to smallpox. Exp in addition to ed Programme Of Immunization (EPI) The Global program of immunization was launched following a resolution of world health Assembly in 1974 Exp in addition to ed Programme as long as Immunization The EPI in Pakistan was initiated as a pilot project in 1976. Was launched at federal level in 1978. Was Established nation-wide by 1981. The programme currently targets seven vaccine preventable diseases i.e.

Without effective immunization, it is estimated that 100,00 deaths due to measles, 70,000 cases of neonatal tetanus in addition to 20,000 paralytic cases of poliomyelitis would occur in Pakistan each year. The routine immunization schedule targets one dose of BCG, 3 doses OPV in addition to DPT vaccines in addition to one dose of measles vaccine in the first year of life. At birth dose of OPV is scheduled if there is health staff contact with the infant be as long as e it reaches 6 weeks age. Immunization Immunization Schedule as long as Infants: Recommended by WHO – Exp in addition to ed Program on Immunization

. Immunization Schedule as long as Infants: Recommended by WHO – Exp in addition to ed Program on Immunization . CONTRA-INDICATIONS General Contraindications Any acute illness Severe malnutrition. In known cases of immune deficiency. RELATED TO GROUPS OF VACCINES During pregnancy there is mild to fatal damage to the foetus. The continuous administration of glucocorticoid usually prednisolone impairs the body response to a primary antigenic stimulation but the secondary response is not appreciably affected. Total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Administration of anti-metabolites such as 6-M.P. or azothioprine, nitrogen mustard, actinomycin, as they inhibit the primary response.

INDIVIDUAL VACCINES BCG is contraindicated in extensive dermatosis. Whooping cough- the appearance of any neurological symptoms after the first or second dose is an absolute contraindication. Toxoids- No contraindication as long as TT. For Polio Vaccine Diarrhea, No polio vaccine to be administered within three weeks of tonsillectomy. Measles- History of febrile convulsions in addition to active tuberculosis. Smallpox was the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculating themselves. Smallpox inoculation was started in India in addition to China be as long as e 200 BC. In 1718, Lady Mary Wortley Montague reported that the Turks have a habit of deliberately inoculating themselves with fluid taken from mild cases of smallpox in addition to she inoculated her own children. In 1796 Edward Jenner inoculated using cowpox (a mild relative of the deadly smallpox virus). The term vaccination was first used by Edward Jenner in 1796. Louis Pasteur further adapted in his pioneering work in microbiology. Vaccination (Latin: vacca—cow) is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting cows—the relatively benign cowpox virus—which provides a degree of immunity to smallpox. ‘vaccination’ in addition to ‘immunization’ generally have the same meaning. This distinguishes it from inoculation which uses unweakened live pathogens, although in common usage either is used to refer to an immunization. The word “vaccination” was originally used specifically to describe the injection of smallpox vaccine.

Jenner’s h in addition to written draft of the first vaccination. Mary Wortley Montagu, 1716. USES OF IMMUNOLOGY For the immunization programs. In hypersensitivity in addition to drug reaction. Forecasting of epidemics. Serological diagnosis in addition to blood grouping. Carrier detection. Organ transplantation.

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Four different types of vaccines are currently available. Attenuated (weakened) live virus is used in the measles, mumps, in addition to rubella (MMR) vaccine in addition to the varicella (chicken pox) vaccine. These vaccines may cause serious infections in people with weakened immune systems. Killed (inactivated) viruses or bacteria are used in some vaccines, such as the influenza vaccine. These vaccines are safe, even in people with weakened immune systems. Toxoid vaccines, such as the diphtheria or tetanus vaccines, contain a toxin or chemical made by the bacteria or virus. They make you immune to the harmful effects of the infection rather than the infection itself. Biosynthetic vaccines contain human-made substances that the immune system thinks are infectious organisms. The Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B) conjugate vaccine is one example. Immune System BARRIERS AND INNATE IMMUNITY Immune system includes barriers These barriers are innate immunity (with you from birth) skin, stomach acid, mucus (which traps bacteria in addition to small particles), the cough reflex, in addition to enzymes in tears in addition to skin oils. If an antigen gets passed the external barriers, it is attacked in addition to destroyed by other parts of the immune system.

BARRIERS AND INNATE IMMUNITY continued BLOOD COMPONENTS The immune system includes certain types of white blood cells. It also includes chemicals in addition to proteins in the blood, such as complement proteins in addition to interferon. Some of these directly attack as long as eign substances in the body, in addition to others work together to help the immune system cells. INFLAMMATION The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. Chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, in addition to others are released by damaged tissue. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling. This helps isolate the as long as eign substance from further contact with body tissues. ANTIGEN: “An antigen is a substance which when introduced into the body stimulates specific immune response”. Chemically an antigen may be a protein,carbohydrate,lipid or nucleic acid in addition to usually as long as eign or nonself to the body. ANTIBODY: “An antibody is a protein substance produced in response to a specific antigen with which it combines chemically”. This reaction of antibody results in neutralization in addition to elimination of antigen. IMMUNITY “Reaction of the body towards any as long as eign substance or non self”. The immune response is how your body recognizes in addition to defends itself against bacteria, viruses, in addition to substances that appear as long as eign in addition to harmful to the body Immune mechanism reacts with every as long as eign substance whether visible or microscopic. Host defense(Immunity) may be Natural Immunity Acquired Immunity

DO NOT FREEZE THESE VACCINES DTP (Diphtheria-tetanus- pertussis vaccine “Triple antigen”) CDT (Combined diphtheria-tetanus vaccine) ADT (Adult diphtheria-tetanus vaccine) TT (Tetanus toxoid) · Hib vaccines Hepatitis B Vaccine · Hepatitis A Vaccine Monovalent pertussis vaccine Influenza vaccine DO NOT EXPOSE THESE VACCINES TO LIGHT: BCG Vaccine Reconstituted MMR (measles/mumps/rubella) vaccine Oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) Dosage

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