Lecture 05: Spatial Data Structure as long as Computer Cartography Geography 128 Analyt

Lecture 05: Spatial Data Structure as long as Computer Cartography Geography 128 Analyt www.phwiki.com

Lecture 05: Spatial Data Structure as long as Computer Cartography Geography 128 Analyt

Gonzalez, Daniel, Immigration Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Lecture 05: Spatial Data Structure as long as Computer Cartography Geography 128 Analytical in addition to Computer Cartography Spring 2007 Department of Geography University of Cali as long as nia, Santa Barbara Spatial Data Transfer St in addition to ard (SDTS) SDTS is “a robust way of transferring earth-referenced spatial data between dissimilar computer systems with the potential as long as no in as long as mation loss. It is a transfer st in addition to ard that embraces the philosophy of self-contained transfers, i.e. spatial data, attribute, geo-referencing, data quality report, data dictionary, in addition to other supporting metadata all included in the transfer” (USGS, http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/sdts/) Draft st in addition to ard published in The American Cartographer (1988) FIPS (Federal In as long as mation Processing St in addition to ards) 173 approved 1992 St in addition to ard consists of several parts Spatial Data Transfer St in addition to ard (SDTS) Part 1 – Logical Specifications explain the SDTS conceptual model in addition to SDTS spatial object types, components of a data quality report, in addition to the layout of all SDTS modules Part 2 – Spatial Features contains a catalogue of spatial features in addition to associated attributes Part 3 – ISO 8211 Encoding explains the use of a general purpose file exchange st in addition to ard, ISO 8211, to create SDTS filesets (i.e. transfers) Part 4 – Topological Vector Profile (SDTS-TVP, e.g., SDTS-DLG) defines how the SDTS base specification (Parts 1, 2, in addition to 3) must be implemented as long as a particular type of data (USGS, http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/sdts/)

Chicago State University US www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

Spatial Data Transfer St in addition to ard (SDTS) Part 5 – Raster Profile (SDTS-RP, e.g., SDTS-DEM) as long as 2-dimensional image in addition to gridded raster data. It permits alternate image file as long as mats using the ISO Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF) or Georeferenced Tagged in as long as mation File Format (GeoTIFF) Part 6 – Point Profile (SDTS-PP) contains specifications as long as use with geographic point data only, with the option to carry high precision coordinates such as those required as long as geodetic network control points Part 7-Computer Aided Design in addition to Drafting Profile (SDTS-CADDP) contains specifications as long as an SDTS profile as long as use with vector-based geographic data as represented in CADD software (USGS, http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/sdts/) Data Structures in addition to Programming Data Model maps onto a data structure Data structure eventually implies programming structure Unstructured computer programming languages did not support data structures well Structured languages (e.g. C, Pascal) allow definition of structures directly (attributes only) Object-oriented languages (e.g. C++, Java) allow definition of objects (attributes + behaviors) Link between the physical storage of data in addition to the data’s use in mapping systems Zero Dimensional Objects Most primitive object is the POINT Can be (x,y) or (x,y,z) Consists of geocodes as long as location in a st in addition to ard system Should be in world not image geometry If significant topologically, is a node. Can identify a feature (entity) or a label (label) Can be INSIDE an area in addition to carry its identification in as long as mation

One Dimensional Objects Divide up by lines with in addition to without topological significance Primitive object is the segment Segments connect to make a string (line or polyline) If defined mathematically, use arc If line segment connects nodes, called a link ( as long as a network) Topological versions carry end node in addition to or left in addition to right polygon data Complete, area in addition to network chain versions Area-like objects are G-ring in addition to GT-ring One Dimensional Objects Two Dimensional Objects Interior area is the space contained by the polygon, i.e. the object not the boundary G-polygon contains graphical objects that as long as m a polygon, e.g. a ring GT-polygon contains complete topology Toplogical encoding requires universe in addition to void polygons. Special objects pixel (the smallest non-divisible element of a digital image) Grid cell (same as pixel but as long as a grid)

Aggregate Objects DIGITAL IMAGE two dimensional array of regular pixels Aggregate Objects (cnt.) GRID Set of grid cells as long as ming a regular or near regular tesselation Aggregate Objects (cnt.) LAYER Distributed set of spatial data representing entity instances within on theme, or with a common attribute. Usually registered with other layers.

Aggregate Objects (cnt.) RASTER One or more overlapping layers from the same grid or digital image. Aggregate Objects (cnt.) GRAPH Planar Graph: Node in addition to link/chain set as applied to a plane surface Two-dimensional Manifold: Planar graph with all included objects Network A graph without two-dimensional objects (links do not have to intersect) Limitations Three dimensional objects time-sensitive objects Links to other st in addition to ards Implementation slow via profiles Next Lecture Map Data Structure

Gonzalez, Daniel Arizona Republic Immigration Reporter www.phwiki.com

Gonzalez, Daniel Immigration Reporter

Gonzalez, Daniel is from United States and they belong to Arizona Republic and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Gonzalez, Daniel deal with the subjects like Hispanic Interest; Immigration/Emigration

Journal Ratings by Chicago State University

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Chicago State University and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.