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Lecture 1: Basic Concepts in Cognitive DevelopmentDr. Neil H. SchwartzDepar
Drew University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Lecture 1: Basic Concepts in Cognitive DevelopmentDr. Neil H. SchwartzDepartment of PsychologyPsych 353 Preliminary AssumptionsExperience is essential in the development of thinkingIt takes nearly 20 years so that develop an adult nervous systemCognition develops quantitatively in addition to qualitatively during the life-span. That is,You don?t just know more but think quite differently over time. The changes take place by virtue of:The developmental function- the form cognition takes over timeIndividual differences-variations among people at any given developmental period. Cognition: A Conceptual DescriptionIt is what laypersons call thinking.It is not directly observable, but implied from behavior.It is real in addition to it exists.Cognition includes conscious in addition to deliberate acts in addition to non-deliberate processes.It is comprised of different types of activities.
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Those activities consist of:acquiring, comprehending in addition to modifying information.developing, executing in addition to evaluating plans. (macro-mechanism)giving meaning so that things we perceive. (micro-mechanism)forming concepts in addition to classifying stimuli. (micro-mechanism)Cognition: Its Development over TimeCognition has structure in addition to function.Cognition changes in both structure in addition to function over time.Change is perpetual.Developmental progression is an interaction of biology in addition to experience.Developmental progression moves from simple so that complex, in addition to incomplete so that complete.Development is an active process.StructureRefers so that the framework of knowledge that underlies behavior. Ex. knowledge comprised of how so that put one leg in front of another so that walk or knowledge of how so that solve a calculus problem, Or how so that program a VCR or set the table in consideration of dinner.Cognition organizes this knowledge. It is probably a neural network, in addition to network of networks.FunctionRefers so that what we do alongside the cognitive system. Perception, memory, reasoning, judgment, problem solving.
Cognition: Its Development over TimeStructure in addition to function of cognition during development is bi-directional.Environmental stimulation in addition to actions of a structure itself can change the structure.Changes in structure change the functions.Functions are limited by structures? capability.Function is necessary in consideration of development.Aspects of development are inter-related in addition to integrated.Development is sequential but not continuous. It is discontinuous.Children will use a developmental accomplishment over in addition to over once it is acquired.Children will give cues so that their environment that they are ready so that move so that the next developmental level.Children will seek out stimulation in order so that develop.
Trademark Priority Intro so that IP ? Prof Merges 3.15.10 Agenda Zazu Designs, Inc. v. L?Oreal Meets alongside Chemists; sales in salon L?Oreal ZHD How do you establish priority? Lanham Act sec. 1, 15 USC 1051 ?(a)(1) The owner of a trademark used in commerce may request registration of its trademark on the principal register hereby established . . . .? Caselaw: Balancing two factors Sound familiar? Use requirement A twist: ?Intent so that use? Intent so that use statute: Lanham Act Sec. 1(b), 15 USC 1051(b) Lan Act Sec 13, 15 USC 1063 (b)(2) a notice of allowance shall be issued so that the applicant if the applicant applied in consideration of registration under section 1051(b) of this title. . . . ?Use in Commerce? Maryland Stadium v. Becker: IPNTA 5th 786 What constitutes ?use?? Registration – Priority State registration; common law use Common Law Rights in addition to Concurrent Use Common law rights Weiner King, Inc. v. Wiener King Corp., 615 F.2d 512 (C.C.P.A. 1980) Dawn Donut v. Hart?s, 267 F2d 358 (2d Cir 1959)
Developmental Function & Individual DifferencesDevelopment is studied in stages in addition to norms.Important differences do exist between in addition to within individuals.FIVE ?Truths? of Cognitive developmentCognitive development proceeds as a result of the dynamic in addition to reciprocal transaction of internal in addition to external factors;Cognitive development is constructed within social contextCognitive development involves both stability in addition to plasticity over time;Cognitive development involves changes in the way information is represented;andChildren develop increasing intentional control over their behavior in addition to cognitionAdaptive ConstraintsRepresentational ? hardwired into brain, such as the nature of objects.Architectural ? type in addition to arrangement of neurons limit what information the brain can process, such as language.Chronotopic ? neural readiness in consideration of different areas is on a timeline.
Evolution in addition to Cognitive DevelopmentEvolutionary theory?s influence on cognitive development:Evolutionary psychology provides explanations in consideration of both the ?how? in addition to ?why? questions about human behavior. Cognitive FlexibilityStability: degree so that which one?s intelligence maintains its relative rank order compared so that one?s peersPlasticity: degree of flexibility of a cognitive abilityA developmental contextual modelTimecultureSocietyCommunityteachersclassmatesSchool Network Social networkParent peersChild?s peersNonnuclearfamilysiblingsParent spouseMarriage networkWork networkImmediate job associatesIndirect job associates child parentcognitionpersonalityBehaviorDemandshealthEtctemperamentDevelopmentlevelbiologychildcognitionpersonalityBehaviorDemandsHealthEtcTemperamentDevelopment levelbiology
Dynamic Systems ApproachCognitive changes are emergent due so that interaction among characteristics of structure in addition to the environment.Change is nonlinear.Systems continually self-organized, transitioning from one stable state so that another, known as phase transition. Domain-general vs. Domain-specific abilitiesBoth existDomain-general: cognition is influenced by one set of factorsDomain-specific: different cognitive domains are controlled by different brain functions or areas of the brainChanges in Cognitive DevelopmentRepresentation: Children in addition to adults differ in the ways they represent information. Different techniques are particular so that each stage of development. Intentional Control: Children develop strategies so that solve problems. Strategies are intentional, goal-directed mental operations designed so that solve a problem
Stages of Development: CharacteristicsStages are defined by qualitative differences: changes in type, often subjectively perceived as different.There is discontinuity from one stage so that the next as different behaviors appear at once.Homogeneity of cognitive function is seen in stage related functions being done in the same way.Evolutionary Psychology Cognitive development is contextual Cognition is shaped by domain-specific brain modules, in addition to as such, function varies by each module.Because of domain-specificity, representational, architectural, in addition to chronotopic constraints on cognition, learning becomes more facilitated.Constraints allow the learner so that filter in addition to focus attention on what is important so that learn.
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