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Levels of the political system System theories Fundamentals of Political Science
Divine Word College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Fundamentals of Political Science Dr. Sujian Guo Professor of Political Science San Francisco State Unversity Email: sguo@sfsu bss.sfsu /sguo System theories As far as system theory is concerned, the political system – like other systems such as the economic system – represents a subsystem. What makes the political system so special is that it is in this system that “authoritative allocation of values” are made or authoritative value assignments are made = decisions that are binding in consideration of all. Levels of the political system State A permanent structure of political entity alongside legitimate use of coercion over the territory in addition to population. Governments succeed one another or regimes come in addition to go, while the state usually stays. Regime Fundamental principles, norms, rules of the political institutions of the state within which government operates. A regime is a more permanent organization of power than specific governments. Governments may come in addition to go while the regime may remain in place. Government A collection of offices in a political system filled by office holders who play various roles in the political process.
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Important Implications We can tell governments succeed one another, but how can we identify regime changes? This has important theoretical in addition to political implications in consideration of the political analysis or the comparison of different political systems. The first thing so that do is so that identify the defining features of one type of regime from which a transition departs or a change occurs. Principles in addition to norms provide the basic defining characteristics of a regime, while rules in addition to procedures can be consistent or inconsistent alongside the same principles in addition to norms. Changes in rules in addition to procedures are changes within a regime, if principles in addition to norms are unaltered. A regime change occurs only when those fundamental principles in addition to norms change, such as change from a ?nondemocratic? regime so that a ?democratic? regime. Furthermore, the nature of one particular type of regime can remain in place, even if this type of regime incorporate some features of another type of regime. Ex. a nondemocratic regime can have constitutional provisions in consideration of elections, but these are meaningless unless an opposition is allowed in addition to able so that succeed legitimately so that government in an open, free, in addition to fair contest. The David Easton Model System theory is almost synonymous alongside the name of David Easton, who published his theoretic works on political models in three volumes – “The Political System” (1964), “A Framework in consideration of Political Analysis” (1965) in addition to most importantly “A Systems Analysis of Political Life” (1979). At the center of his work was the question as so that how political systems manage so that remain firm in a world full of instability in addition to change. To answer this question, he believes that it is necessary so that examine the way in which the political system interacts alongside the environment within society in addition to outside of society.
What is a System? A system is a collection of ELEMENTS that are related so that each other by some PATTERN of behavior in addition to actions. 1. Purpose The purpose of the political system is so that convert inputs (demands in addition to supports) into outputs (decisions) 2. Elements The elements of system are political actions (decisions, demands, supports, implementation actions, etc.) 3. Boundaries The boundary of the system determines what is part of the system in addition to what is not – IE – what actions are political in addition to what actions are not. Actions that are political are inside the system (endogenous) 4. Environment All actions in addition to conditions that are NOT political are in the environment (exogenous) Easton’s definition of the Political System Political System: “A set of interactions abstracted from the totality of social behavior, through which values are authoritatively allocated in consideration of a society.? Authoritative allocation of values: similar so that Lasswell’s defintion of politics: “Who gets what, when in addition to How” The Key Assumption The key assumption built into this definition is that in every society people have different values such as interests, objectives, desires, resources, in addition to these must be authoritatively allocated or distributed in a conflict situation (scarcity vs. incompatible goals). ?How is this done? or ?how are values distributed,? or in Lasswell?s classic phrase, ?Who gets What, When, in addition to How?? becomes the basic question of politics in addition to the main task of any political system.
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Easton’s theory of political system 1. He rejects the idea that different systems must be created in consideration of national in addition to international politics – He seeks a “unified theory of politics” that can be universally applied so that all political systems in addition to activities. 2. He argues that if Political Science is so that be a science it must have high level abstractions in consideration of the ordering of knowledge, which will encompass all of what is politics, all of what affects politics, in addition to all of what politics affects. 3. The first task of political science is the analysis of general problems common so that all political systems – e.g. survival, reproduction, & adaptation. Critiques of Easton 1. Easton claims so that create a “general theory” but he really has only succeeded in describing or defining the political system 2. Black box view of politics: 1) Not clear of how “conversion” inside the box operates 2) Assumes that politics is ordered in addition to complete 3) Too mechanical in addition to rigid – not dynamic 3. Ideological Too western – democratic – not general Can Easton?s theory is capable of answering such questions? Can Easton’s model be used so that describe all political systems? Can Easton’s model be used so that describe communist, authoritarian, corporatist systems? Almond’s theory of the political system 1. drawing on Weber he stated that political systems can be classified by their “political culture” 2. The political culture defines the roles that are played in the political system 3. Thus political systems are in fact systems of roles 4. All political systems must perform a minimal set of basic functions 5. The functions are performed by structures 6. Structures are patterned roles a. All systems must perform the function of rule making (judiciary) b. The judge, jury, district attorney, etc. are roles played by individuals in the political system c. The “court” is a structure ? i.e. – it is a set of patterned roles d. The structure (court) performs one of the minimal basic functions (rule making) 7. Thus ? Almond?s approach is basically “structural functionalism”
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