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Lexicon Outline A Chart Parser in consideration of Analyzing Modern Standard Arabic Sentence
Bellevue University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, A Chart Parser in consideration of Analyzing Modern Standard Arabic Sentence Outline Why Arabic Is Difficult so that Parse? Arabic Chart Parser Architecture Arabic Morphological Analyzer in addition to Lexicon Arabic Unification Based Grammar The Proposed Chart Parser Conclusion Why Arabic Is Difficult so that Parse? Length of the sentence in addition to the complex Arabic syntax Omission of diacritics (vowels) in written Arabic ?altashkii? Free word order nature of Arabic sentence Presence of an elliptic personal pronoun ?alDamiir almustatir?
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Arabic Chart Parser Architecture Grammar rule Input sentence Stem alongside features Inflected word Stem alongside features Parse tree Stem Parser Lexicon Morphological Analyzer Arabic Grammar Arabic Morphological Analyzer in addition to Lexicon Morphology – using augmented transition network (ATN) technique. -The morphological analyzer consists of three modules: Analyzer module, lexical disambiguation module in addition to features extraction module. A Morph Example: ??????? (alTalabayn) ???????
Lexicon Three morphological categories in consideration of Arabic words: noun, verb, in addition to particle Two types of features in the lexicon: syntactic features that eliminate syntactic ambiguity lexical features that eliminate lexical ambiguity features are stored in the lexicon in addition to can be modified during the sentence analysis No. of entries: 5000 The Verb Entry form: verb (Stem, Voice, Tense, [Subject Gender, Object Gender], Number, End case, Transitivity, [Subject rationality, Object Rationality], Infinitive) Syntactic features: Voice: passive / active Tense: past / present [Subject gender, Object Gender]: [Male/Female, Male/Female] Number: singular /dual / plural [End Case, Agent]: [accusative / nominative / genitive, subject / object / proagent], Transitivity: intransitive / transitive_1_obj / transitive_2_obj This feature gives the grammar the ability so that predict the max number of agents expected after the verb that helps in distinguishing between passive in addition to active voice of verbs that do not change their form in both cases. The Verb Entry (Cont?d) Lexical features: [Subject Rationality, Object rationality]: [rational/irrational, rational/irrational] This feature helps in determining that an agent is the proagent in consideration of a verb but not its subject by comparing the rationality feature of this verb alongside the agent feature. Infinitive: [infinitive form] since we did not store the passive form of the verb in the lexicon this feature is needed when the morphology decides that the verb in the passive voice.
The Noun Entry form: noun(Stem ,Definition ,Gender ,Number ,Adjectivability ,End case ,[Category, Rationality] , irregular plural) Syntactic features: Definition: defined/undefined/neutral Gender: male/female Number: Singular /dual / plural, End case: [indeclinable/quiescence/accusative/nominative/genitive, without_noon: so that indicate that the noun does not take suffix ??? in case of dual or plural which means that the noun must be in an annexation form] Irregular plural: [broken plural form of the irregular noun] The Noun Entry (Cont?d) Lexical features: Adjectivability: yes: if we can get the adjective form by adding the suffix ??? /no otherwise [Category, Rationality]: [category can be any noun type like: adjective, infinitive, demonstrative noun ? etc., rational/irrational]. The category is needed because some noun types are not allowed so that occur in a certain sentence position like the adjective in the position of subject. The Particle Entry Particles: A particle has the following form: Particle (Stem, Category). The only feature represented here is the Category: preposition, conjunction?etc.
A UBG in consideration of Arabic Implemented using SICStus Prolog 3.10 Each grammar rule has the form rule(LHS,RHS):- constrains Constraints used to: Ensure the agreement bet. LHS in addition to RHS Reduce the syntactic ambiguity. Reduce the semantic ambiguity The Grammar Arabic sentence Either nominal sentence or verbal sentence Either simple or compound. the simple sentence does not have a complementary that could occur at the end of the sentence. No. of rules: 170 The rules are collected into 22 group. Each one represents a grammatical category such as: Object, Subject, Defined, conjunction form, substitution form etc. This categorization is designed in such a way it helps in maintaining the grammar in a modular way A Grammar Rule Example The following rule defines the verbal sentence that contains only verb phrase. This verb phrase could be just a verb or a verb preceded by a particle. Some constraints should be satisfied in order so that apply this rule during the course of parsing the sentence: The verb must not be ditransitive (i.e. taking two objects): If the morphological analysis of the verb could not tell us whether it is in passive or active voice, we have so that check the transitivity of the verb: If it is intransitive, the verb must be in active voice in addition to the (Cat) feature which hold the information about the agent will be either connected or absent agent If the verb is transitive in addition to takes only one object, it must be in passive voice in addition to the pro-agent will be either connected or absent. Note that when the verb has the same lexical form in both the active in addition to passive voices, like the verb ?????, we used semantics features so that determine the correct voice.
Its implementation rule( simple_verbal_sentence(Stem, Time1,Gen,Num,Cat), [verb_phrase(Stem, Time,Gen,Num,Trans,_,Agent)]):- ((+var(Agent),Agent==)-> Agent=[Sub|Obj];Sub=Agent), Trans==trans_2_obj, (Time==neutral,+var(Trans)-> (Trans==intrans-> Time1=active, (+var(Obj),Obj==-> Cat=connected_subject;Cat=Sub); Time1=passive, (+var(Obj), Obj==-> Cat=Sub; Cat=connected_pro_agent)) ;( var(Trans)->true ; (Time==active-> Trans=intrans, Time1=active, (+var(Obj),Obj==-> Cat=connected_subject_objct; Cat=Sub); Trans=trans_1_obj,Time1=passive, (+var(Obj),Obj==-> Cat=connected_pro_agent_objct; Cat=Sub) ))). The Proposed Chart Parser Combines the advantages of both top-down in addition to bottom-up parsing algorithms. predictive & avoids any reduplication of work Chart Parser Algorithm Initializing the chart For every rule of form root->C1 C2 ???. Ck add an arc labeled root-> oC1 C2 ???. Ck using the arc introduction algorithm Parsing Do until there is no input: If the agenda is empty look up the interpretation of the next word in addition to add it so that the agenda. Select a constitute C from the agenda . Using the arc extension algorithm combine C alongside every active arc on the chart . Any new constituent are add so that the agenda. For any active arcs created in step 3 add them so that the chart using the arc introduction algorithm
A Chart Parsing Example verbal_sentence(Stem,Time,Gen,Num,Cat) verb_phrase(Stem,Time,[S_Gen|O_Gen] ,Num ,Trans,[ S_rat,O_rat],Agent) ???? START Parse(????? ????? ?????, verbal_sentence) simple_verbal_sentence (Stem,Time,Gen,Num,Cat) agent(Stem,Cat,Agent_type,Rat) circumstantial(Stem,Gen,Num) verb(Stem ,Time ,Tense ,Gen, Num,[End_case Agent],Trans ,Rat, infinitive) pro_agent(Stem,Gen,Rat) ????? ???? defined(Stem,Gen,Num,End_case,[Cat,Rat]) Conclusion This paper has been concentrated on issues in the design in addition to implementation of a chart parser in consideration of Arabic. We acquired the Arabic grammar rules of irab (???????) in addition to the effects of applying these rules so that the constituents of the Arabic sentence. The grammar rules encode the syntactic in addition to the semantic constrains that help in resolving the ambiguity of parsing Arabic sentences. This will have a positive impact on applications such as machine translation because the target sentence will be produced from a structure that represents the intended meaning of the source Arabic sentence. Arc extension algorithm: To add a constituent C from position P1 so that P2: IF there is any active arc of the form X->C1. oC .?.Ck from position P0 so that P1 then 1- add a new active arc X->C1 ?. C o???. Ck from position P0 so that P2. 2-Insert C in the chart from position P1 so that P2. 3-for any active arc of the form X->C1 ?. o C from position P0 so that P1 add a new constituent of type X from P0 so that P2 so that the agenda else take next constituent in the agenda
Arc introduction algorithm To add an arc root->C1 ?. oCj ???. Ck ending at position i: in consideration of each rule in the grammar of form Cj -> X1??. Xk recursively add the new arc Cj -> oX1??. Xk from position i so that i.
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