LG 204 Communications System Issues of Current DSN 70m Goldstone Antenna Basic Concept Line-of-Sight

LG 204 Communications System	 Issues of Current DSN 70m Goldstone Antenna Basic Concept Line-of-Sight www.phwiki.com

LG 204 Communications System Issues of Current DSN 70m Goldstone Antenna Basic Concept Line-of-Sight

Wall, Russell, Morning Show Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal LG 204 Communications System Amit Patel amitypat@usc.com ASTE 527 Issues of Current DSN Many of the current DSN assets are obsolete or well beyond the end of their design lifetimes The largest antennas (70m diameter) are more than 40 years old in addition to are not suitable as long as use at Ka-b in addition to where wider b in addition to widths allow as long as the higher data rates required as long as future missions Current DSN is not sufficiently resilient or redundant to h in addition to le future mission dem in addition to s Future US deep space missions will require much more per as long as mance than the current system can provide Require ~ factor of 10 or more bits returned from spacecraft each decade Require ~ factor of 10 or more bits sent to spacecraft each decade Require more precise spacecraft navigation as long as entry/descent/l in addition to ing in addition to outer planet encounters Require improvements needed to support human missions NASA has neglected investment in the DSN, in addition to other communications infrastructure as long as more than a decade Compared to 15 years ago, the number of DSN-tracked spacecraft has grown by 450%, but the number of antennas has grown only by 30% There is a need to reduce operations in addition to maintenance costs beyond the levels of the current system 70m Goldstone Antenna Upgrades needed Change to 30GHz Ka-B in addition to

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Per as long as mance Upgrade as long as Next Generation DSN 4 Need Higher Data Rates 4 Advantages of Higher Frequency High B in addition to width due to Intrinsically High Carrier Frequency Reduced Component Size as compared to Electronic Counterparts Ability to Concentrate Power in Narrow Beams Very High Gain with relatively Small Apertures Reduction in Transmitted Power Requirements

Basic Concept TDRSS or TSAT Satellites 10 Gbps links at 3 Ghz To Whites in addition to s Ground Teminal, etc LG204 Communications System For Earth-Moon link communication 2 X 12m mesh tracking antenna Solar Arrays sized at as long as 4m by 14m as long as 30kW solar power Output power on HPA (High Power Amplifier) X 2 – 500 W total ie., 250W on each HPA Power receiver from microwaves For Moon to lunar orbit communication link 2m tracking mesh antenna – 10W Omni – X 3 For lunar surface local communication Omnis Laser communication links to observatories – 12in aperture X 3 – high b in addition to width LG204 Communications System Comm in addition to Module Link Laser Link 2 to observatory Laser Link 1 to observatory Omni High Gain Mesh Antenna To Earth Gimbaled Solar Arrays

Lunar Environment Considerations Absence of significant atmosphere On Earth, have to deal with Absorption, Turbulence in addition to Link Availability Path absorption losses minimal Spreading Loss dominant loss mechanism No Beam W in addition to er, Scintillation, etc. No Weather (Clouds, Rain, Fog) Link Budget Block Diagram Moon-to-Earth Optical Data Link 2m Antenna on Lunar Surface Antenna Diameter = 2m Frequency = 70 Ghz Lambda = 0.00429m Loss free space = 138.9 dB Gain (dBi) = 40.1 dB Received signal power (C) = -104.52 Available (C/No) = 108.07 Power = 10 Watts Required (Eb/No) (bit energy/Noise power density) = 8 Max Bit rate supported = 10.157 Gbps

Experimental Technology Inflatable Antenna Combines traditional fixed parabolic dish with an inflatable reflector annulus Redundant system prevents “all-or-nothing” scenarios Based on novel shape memory composite structure High packing efficiency Low cost fabrication in addition to inflation of an annulus antenna Overall surface accuracy 1 mm Negligible gravity effects Elimination of large curve distortions across the reflector surface (i.e. Hencky curve) 2 General Horizon Formula The general horizon distance as long as mula is X = (h^2 + 2hR)^1/2, where X is the distance to the horizon R is lunar radius = 1737.10 km h is height of the observer/transmitter above ground Distance from Malapart to Shackleton = 150km Distance from Shackleton to Schrodinger = 300km Peak to Peak (8km) = 334km Peak to Ground = 164km Line-of-Sight To Earth Mons Malapert Shackleton Schrodinger 110km 300km 120km 150km

Data Rates Forward Link Requirements Data Type (Reliable Channel) Data Rates Element Speech 10 kbps Astronaut Digital Channel 200 bps Astronaut Digital Channel 2 kbps Transport / Rover / Base Data Type (High Rate Channel) Data Rates Element Comm in addition to Loads 100 kbps Transport / Rover / Base CD-quality Audio 128 kbps Astronaut Video (TV, Videoconference) 1.5 Mbps Astronaut Return Link Requirements Data Type (Reliable Channel) Data Rates Element Speech 10 kbps Astronaut Engineering Data 2 kbps Astronaut Engineering Data 20 kbps Transport / Rover / Base Video 100 kbps Helmet Camera Video 1.5 Mbps Rover Data Type (High Rate Channel) Data Rates Element High Definition TV 20 Mbps Astronaut Biomedics 35 Mbps Astronaut Hyperspectral Imaging 150 Mbps Science Payload Synthetic Aperture Radar 100 Mbps Science Payload Aggregated Data Rates Aggregated Return Link Requirements (Reliable Channel) User Channel Content of Channels Channel Data Rate Total Data Rate Base Speech 4 10 kbps 40 kbps Base Engineering 1 100 kbps 100 kbps Astronaut Speech 4 10 kbps 40 kbps Astronaut Helmet Camera 8 100 kbps 80 kbps Astronaut Engineering 4 20 kbps 80 kbps Transports Video 4 1.5 Mbps 6 Mbps Transports Engineering 4 20 kbps 80 kbps Rovers Video 24 1.5 Mbps 36 Mbps Rovers Engineering 24 20 kbps 480 kbps Aggregate 43 Mbps (High Rate Channel) User Channel Content of Channels Channel Data Rate Total Data Rate Base HDTV 1 20 Mbps 20 Mbps Astronaut Biomedics 4 35 Mbps 140 Mbps Transports HDTV 1 20 Mbps 20 Mbps Transports Hyperspectral Imaging 1 150 Mbps 150 Mbps Rovers Radar 1 100 Mbps 100 Mbps Rovers Hyperspectral Imaging 1 150 Mbps 150 Mbps Observatories Hyperspectral Imaging 3 150 Mbps 450 Mbps Aggregate 1030 Mbps Block Diagram of System 5

Block Diagram of Antenna 5 Communication signal flow between spacecraft in addition to Earth as long as free-space optical communication links. 3 Problems Dust Electrostatically attaches to surfaces Atomically sharp, abrasive Wide range of particle distribution size Lunar Line-of-Sight Very rough terrain Other Radiation in addition to Solar Flares, Temperature Swings Micrometeorites ( in addition to not so “micro”) Antenna Pointing Accuracy Optical Libration – Needs to be accounted as long as .

Further Studies Laser communications Large towers Inflatable Antennas Future 1km Tower To Shackleton in addition to Schrodinger Conclusion Reliable in addition to Sturdy communication system is critical as long as lunar operations High data rate transfer is vital as long as the successful buildup of a lunar base. Greater b in addition to width in addition to data rate transfers creates many possibilities as long as the future People will be watching lunar activities in the highest quality video, which will lead to much greater interest in space

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References 1. RF in addition to Optical Communications: A Comparison of High Data Rate Returns From Deep Space in the 2020 Timeframe, W. Dan Williams, Michael Collins, Don M. Boroson, James Lesh, Abihijit Biswas, Richard Orr, Leonard Schuchman in addition to O. Scott S in addition to s. http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2007/TM-2007-214459.pdf 2. An Overview of Antenna R&D Ef as long as ts in Support of NASA’s Space Exploration Vision, Robert M. Manning ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20070032056-2007033090.pdf 3. Development of an End-to-End Model as long as Free-Space Optical Communications, H. Hemmati tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress-report/42-161/161H.pdf 4. A Vision as long as theNext GenerationDeep Space Network, Bob Preston, JPLLes Deutsch, Barry Geldzahler www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/may-06-meeting/presentations/next-gen.pdf 5. NASA Ground Network Support of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Steohen F. Currier, Roger N. Clason, Marco M. Midon, Bruce R. Schupler in addition to Michael L. Anderson. sunset.usc.edu/GSAW/gsaw2007/s6/schupler.pdf 6. Using Satellites as long as Worldwide Tele-health in addition to Education – The Gates Proposal. P.Edin, P. Gibson, A. Donati, A. Baker. http://www.esa.int/esapub/bulletin/bullet81/edin81.htm 7. Architectural Prospects as long as Lunar Mission Support. Robert J. Cesarone, Douglas S. Abraham, Leslie J. Deutsch, Gary K. Noreen in addition to Jason A. Soloff. http://sci2.esa.int/Conferences/ILC2005/Presentations/CesaroneR-01-PPT.pdf 8. Communications Requirements as long as the First Lunar Outpost, Timothy Hanson’ in addition to Richard Markley. ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs-all.jsparnumber=465752 BACKUP 12m Antenna Link from Moon to Earth Antenna Diameter = 12m Power = 30kW power array = 240W front end Frequency = 3 Ghz Lambda = 0.01m Loss free space = 157.3 dB Gain (dBi) = 30.7 dB Received signal power = -102.7 Available (C/No) = 110.42 Required (Eb/No) (bit energy/No) = 8 Max Bit rate supported = 10.46 Gbps

Moon – to – Earth Distances in addition to Associated Propagation Losses Minimum: 364,800 km (Propagation Loss = – 314.8 dB) Nominal: 384,00 km (Propagation Loss = – 315.3 dB) Maximum: 403,200 (Propagation Loss = – 315.7 dB) Transmitter Power, 1 W @ 830 nm 0 dBW Transmitter Antenna Gain, 1 m Dia. 131.6 dBi Transmitter Optical Losses – 6.0 dB Space Propagation Losses -315.3 dB Losses in Vacuum 0 dB Spatial Pointing Losses – 1.0 dB Receiver Antenna Gain, 1 m Dia. 131.6 dBi Receiver Optical Losses – 6.0 dB Spatial Tracking Splitter Losses – 1.0 dB Receiver Sensitivity 84.0 dBW Link Margin 17.9 dB Assume: 100 Mbps, 10-6 BER Link Budget Calculation Solar Power Requirements

Mars – .38AU = 56,847,240 km 1 Schematic of S-b in addition to in addition to Ka-B in addition to Antenna 5 Formula’s Used Lambda = speed of light / frequency Loss free space = 20LOG10(4PIDistance-m/lambda) Gain (dBi) = 0.720LOG10(PIAntenna-Dia-m/lambda) Received signal power (C) = PtGtLfsGr Available (C/No) = C-Noise Density Noise Density = KT Required (Eb/No) (bit energy/Noise power density) = 8 Max Bit rate supported = 10^(0.1(C- (Eb/No))) /10^6

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