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Line A Sequential Process: Four-Station Assembly Process Analysis
Conway School of Landscape Design, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Process AnalysisA process is a set of tasks so that be performed in a defined sequenceProcess analysis describes how a process is doing in addition to can be improvedProcess flow diagrams describe pictorially the process in addition to the flow of product in addition to information in the processProcess performance is measured based on capacity, efficiency in addition to effectivenessA Sequential Process: Four-Station Assembly LineProcess Times in consideration of Tasks in addition to SystemsThe process time of a task is the time it takes so that perform the taskThe bottleneck time is the time of the longest process time in the system The throughput time is the time it takes in consideration of a product so that go through production or in consideration of a customer so that receive service from start so that end (assuming no waiting)
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Cycle Times in addition to Bottleneck PacingThe system cycle time is the average time between completion of successive units of product or departures of successive customersThe system cycle time is the process time of the bottleneckThe bottleneck limits the output of the process!Other tasks in process are blocked tasks that create surplus inventory or starved tasks that experience idle time as they wait so that start their tasksDetermining CapacityCapacity is the number of units of product that a process can produce in a specified time period (e.g. units per hour) For service processes, capacity is the number of customers who can be served in a specified time periodThe capacity of a process is the inverse of the cycle time. To calculate capacity per hour:1 hour/cycle time in hours = 60 min/cycle time in minutesBottleneck ManagementRelease work orders so that the system at the pace set by the bottleneckLost time at the bottleneck represents lost time in consideration of the whole systemIncreasing the capacity of a non-bottleneck task is a mirageIncreasing the capacity of a bottleneck increases the capacity of the whole systemCapacity at a station can be increased by lowering the process time.
Capacity AnalysisTwo identical sandwich linesEach line has two workers in addition to a toaster so that perform the three operations All completed sandwiches are wrapped? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCapacity AnalysisToast station has longest processing time ? 40 secondsThe two parallel lines each deliver a sandwich every 40 seconds so every 20 seconds a sandwich will come off one of the lines (40 seconds/2 lines)At 37.5 seconds, wrapping in addition to delivery has the longest processing time in addition to is the bottleneckCapacity per hour is 3,600 seconds/37.5 seconds/sandwich = 96 sandwiches per hourThroughput time is 30 + 15 + 20 + 40 + 37.5 = 142.5 seconds = time customer must wait in consideration of sandwich assuming no waiting at any of the stationsTheory of ConstraintsFive-step process in consideration of recognizing in addition to managing limitationsStep 1: Identify the constraintStep 2: Develop a plan in consideration of overcoming the constraintsStep 3: Focus resources on accomplishing Step 2Step 4: Reduce the effects of constraints by offloading work or expanding capabilityStep 5: Once overcome, go back so that Step 1 in addition to find new constraints
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Measures of Process PerformanceCapacity affects revenue potentialEfficiency measures how well processes make use of inputs (e.g. labor, material, equipment) in addition to affects costs in addition to profitsEffectiveness measures how well the process delivers the customer promiseQualitySpeed (throughput time)Flexibility & responsivenessSafety
Sheyner, Gennady Medical Science Editor
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