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Literature Review (PhD) Recent Studies Negotiating the community:
Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Negotiating the community: How diversity provides a space in consideration of old in addition to new immigration in Derby Recent Studies Dawson, A (2002) ?The problem alongside asylum seeker dispersal: transitions, structures in addition to myths? Benefits, 10:1 9-14 D?Onofrio, L in addition to Monk, K (2003) ?Understanding the stranger: Interim case study findings? commissioned by The Information Centre about asylum in addition to refugees in the UK (ICAR) Subhra, V (2002) ?Developing Services in consideration of Refugees in addition to People Seeking Asylum: A Research project looking at the issues facing people seeking asylum in addition to refugees in addition to the development of services in Derby, Leicester in addition to Nottingham? Refugee Action/University of Derby Goodall, C (2005) ?Dealing alongside Difference: Towards a Model of Successful Relations between Established Communities in addition to New Arrivals in Stoke on Trent?, Seeking Refuge, Seeking Rights, Seeking a Future, 3rd Annual Forced Migration Student Conference, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, 13-14 May 2005 Literature Review (PhD) Theoretical ? critical race theory, cultural theory, Foucauldian theory Policy Driven ? European migration policy, citizenship in addition to migration, dispersal policy (asylum), restrictionist policy measures, ethnicity in addition to community, ethnic identity
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Theoretical underpinning ?Why does ?difference? matter? (Hall, 1995, p234) How ethnically diverse communities form (Bauman, 1990, 1997) The permeable realities of boundaries (Barth, 1966, 1970, 1984, 1989, 1996) The effect of powerful discourses (Foucault, 1977, 1977a, 1982, Carter, 1997) Empirical How British is this community? (Modood, 1994, 1997) Time line of immigration in Derby since World War 2 1945 Poles, Italians, Ukrainians 1950s Pakistani Muslims, African Caribbeans 1960s Ugandan Asians (mainly Hindu, some Muslim) 1970s Indian Sikhs, Vietnamese 1990s Kosovan, Albanian, Bosnian refugees 2000 onwards Iraqi Kurd, Congolese, Afghani, Iranian, Zimbabwean in addition to other asylum groups (DCC 2004) Comparative statistics (ONS 2004) Predominant Groups Derby Community %
Interview Respondents The local council Director of a religious research centre A local academic A local NGO volunteer A refugee community leader A journalist A Sikh dignitary A Pakistani businessman in addition to his Kurdish friend Two men from NASS A practice nurse Question areas Respondent Boundaries Local perceptions of difference (asylum seekers) Local perceptions of difference (community) Desire so that self manage Agencies working together Myth of the ghetto Do asylum seekers fit in Boundaries: negotiating spaces If you are going so that use that resource of a community that is able so that absorb diversity, quickly, easily in addition to relatively painlessly, then I think you have so that think in terms of, policy makers thinking in terms of ?these communities are doing us a favour, so what should we put into that community as the payback?? And how could that be done? Whether it is structural issues so that do alongside housing repairs. Whether it is so that do alongside the funding of local authority departments who are going so that be doing additional work in the area in addition to whether it?s about the funding of the voluntary sector in addition to agencies who will concentrate on that sort of celebration of diversity, championing conflict issues, that sort of work (local academic)
Chapter 2 Atoms in addition to Molecules
Boundaries: permeable reality You know sometimes you can talk so that an Indian, a Sikh or something, you can feel it that he is not very clean from the heart, he is talking on the side But then: When asylum seekers first came into this country, the Pakistani community in addition to the Sikh community they were going so that stop renting houses so that them ? they (Sikhs) said if the government is not going so that do anything about this, we are going so that do something (Pakistani Businessman) Boundaries: desire so that self manage At one time, I used so that get daily phonecalls complaining about asylum seekers (mainly from white people), racist talk, but not anymore (1:4) local council There are examples?.where communities from particular countries or sharing a common language come together in addition to use the structure of voluntary organisations as a vehicle so that support in addition to help themselves, self help groups, community groups in addition to so on (3:12) local academic It is our heart is open, it doesn?t matter the number of the people, so the Sikh community got a big heart, so we can accept people in addition to we can maintain them as well. We have no problem (7:14) Sikh dignitary More we would probably go so that their community centre in addition to have a word, in addition to say, look I think this is an issue (8:8) Pakistani businessman Boundaries: groups form/dialogue begins And so they are helping themselves? because they are coming from countries where there is not a history of that sort of process. Groups that are popping up are supporting themselves in all sorts of ways (local academic) Yes, not in the past, I mean, not in the beginning, ever since I have got their leader, a relationship you know, so they will always discuss alongside us you know if there is any problem, obviously he is new in this city, I have been here so long, so obviously I am in a position so that help him. It depends upon the issue of course (Sikh dignitary)
Boundaries: agencies working together Agencies could work together better, but people are working together (1:4) local council Depends on the personalities involved, the people involved within those statutory in addition to voluntary groups (2:12) religious research centre There was a sense of chaos, many agencies wanting so that do something but not many actually doing something. No sense of leadership or direction in addition to it has certainly moved from that picture where agencies are consolidating, building partnerships (3:12) local academic They agreed enthusiastically that everybody worked together very well. These agencies included the statutory in addition to voluntary sector (notes) (9:3) NASS Local perceptions of difference: asylum seekers I don?t know about the Kurdish but the Pakistanis yeh, they wouldn?t like so that be called asylum seekers??.you got already the Pakistani people in addition to the Sikh communities living in this country in addition to they are not labelled in addition to there is a caste system in our communities (8:11) Pakistani businessman I call them ?newcomers? so that the city which I feel is a better term (1:3) city council I think ?People seeking asylum? is as good as it gets really (3:7) local academic Of course, I don?t like this name, but we have no other choice (5:7) local refugee leader It has connotations these days that aren?t particularly positive (6:5) charity/media In the beginning it was negative, because everyone was frightened of them you know, but now it is settling because the police are doing their practice now (7:10) Sikh dignitary In the media it is used interchangeably (asylum seeker, refugee economic migrant). I don?t know what would be a better term. It has got negative connotations (10:8) practice nurse Local perceptions of difference: within groups The Pakistani community have helped a lot. The Kurdish people need help in addition to the Pakistani people have helped. I don?t know about the elders, you know the youngsters (Pakistani businessman) I like??********* you know, we are like brothers, we share a lot you know what I mean, alongside all his brothers (his Kurdish friend)
Local perceptions of difference: Community: Enclave/Ghetto Insider/Outsider view It is perceived as being disadvantaged from the outside but I do not feel that it is disadvantaged (1:5) (City Council) It has an incredible richness? I don?t know the unemployment statistics (2:17) (Religious Research Centre) Of course it is a good community (5:8). Let me tell you about the word ?poor?. When we say poor in fact from our perspective the word does not exist in England (5:16) Refugee Leader Yeh I do. Poor in the monetary sense?just walking around in addition to looking at the shops in addition to housing stock indicates that it is a relatively poor area compared so that a lot of places. It looks like a lot of other inner city areas (6:5) Charity/Media partnership They didn?t really know the community too well (from notes) (9:3) NASS A lot of respect in this community?.over the past years, how many times have we had joint functions. Is there any other area where they have a joint function? (7:15) (Sikh dignitary) Safe (8:14) Pakistani Businessman Local perceptions of difference: do asylum seekers fit in Other asylum seekers can be wary of new asylum seekers coming in because they are worried that it may rock their boat (1:6) local council I don?t know the answer so that that. I haven?t got my ears so that the grass roots of Normanton in addition to Peartree (2:19) religious research centre You think things are OK in addition to you have very good friends, it?s nice, everything is perfect in addition to you are happy then suddenly you are walking on the street in addition to someone approaches you bad word because you are a foreigner (5:21) refugee leader You kind of like so that think that if people have had experience of you know, people from different cultures, they might be more likely so that you know?I really couldn?t say, it concerns individuals (6:6) charity/media I welcome them because I mean, being an immigrant myself, I think I had experience of you know, that?s where you can be from time so that time so you should help them (7:17) Sikh dignitary I think the people in Normanton do a lot better than the people outside?I know a lot of Kurdish lads yeh, in addition to they are doing so well in consideration of themselves (8:18) Pakistani businessman They felt Derby was quite welcoming overall of asylum seekers in addition to instances of hostility were few (notes) (9:3) NASS
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