M o d e l s o f A e t h e r M o d e l s o f A e t h e r (In the next chapter we

M o d e l s o f A e t h e r M o d e l s o f A e t h e r (In the next chapter we www.phwiki.com

M o d e l s o f A e t h e r M o d e l s o f A e t h e r (In the next chapter we

Wake, Bob, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal M o d e l s o f A e t h e r M o d e l s o f A e t h e r (In the next chapter we will learn about how Maxwell as long as med our underst in addition to ing of waves.) Most waves of which we have immediate experience are transmitted through some medium water waves sound waves vibrating strings M o d e l s o f A e t h e r Question that arises: what medium transmits optical in addition to electromagnetic effects Aether is a negative response to the idea of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum. The debate about aether was also a debate about whether or not light should be understood as a wave

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M o d e l s o f A e t h e r What is aether Aether is a proposed medium as long as electromagnetic in addition to gravitational as long as ces. Mechanical gravitational aether Luminiferous aether D e s c a r t e s & C o r p u s c l e s Rene Descartes (1596-1650) All of space is a plenum (filled with matter) An aether permeates all space Corpuscular/projectile theory of light. The corpsucular theory required that light travel more rapidly in a dense medium than a rarified one or a vacuum. D e s c a r t e s & C o r p u s c l e s Impact in addition to pressure are the only kinds of interactions between matter. “Action at a distance” is ridiculous. Newton’s law of gravitation in addition to Coulomb’s electrostatic law talk about a as long as ce between two bodies, but they give no indication how the as long as ce is transmitted

H o o k e & W a v e s Robert Hooke (1635-1703) – English – Ox as long as d Opponent of Newton Rejected corpuscular theory Light is a vibratory motion transmitted through a medium as a series of wave fronts. H o o k e & W a v e s The wave theory as Hooke proposed it could not explain polarization. By polarization, we are referring to the ‘screening effect’ that happens in common light filters like sunglasses. N e w t o n & t h e A e t h e r Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) – English – Cambridge Newton responded to Hooke’s inability to explain polarization by rejecting the wave theory There is some confusion about his loyalty to the idea of aether

N e w t o n & t h e A e t h e r Newton says seemingly contradictory things about aether in various different works: Early days – All space is filled with variable-density aether Principia – Argues that the existence of dense aether is incompatible with Kepler’s first in addition to third laws. N e w t o n & t h e A e t h e r Later he clarifies his dedication to a theory of aether Letter to Bentley – ‘Action at a distance’ is ridiculous. Later days – Some as long as m of active aether exists as long as the transmission of gravity. It is somehow related to the idea of God’s omnipresence. N e w t o n & t h e A e t h e r Space is not a passive void that matter passes through. Never defines what aether is. Never defines light, but knows it interacts with ( in addition to is distinct from) aether. In Optiks, seems to imply a particle theory of light. Does not necessarily support a corpuscular theory, but leaves the door open as long as Descartes.

H u y g e n s & W a v e T h e o r y Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) – Dutch – Royal Académie of France. Disagreed with the corpuscular theory based on basic observations of light. If two beams of light cross each other, neither beam has any observable effect on the other. There is no sign of collision between the light ‘particles,’ which should be observable as scattered light. H u y g e n s & W a v e T h e o r y Defended the wave theory of light. Light waves were created by disturbances through a highly elastic, tenuous medium. Light is a longitudinal wave Longitudinal waves are those that undergo tiny displacements in the direction of the wave itself (compression in addition to rarefaction) Example: sound waves L e s a g e & C o r p u s c u l a r T h e o r y Text.

L e s a g e & C o r p u s c u l a r T h e o r y H u y g e n s & N e w t o n Science did not take Huygens as seriously as it should have, probably because of Newton’s opposition to Hooke’s wave theory. Newton’s theory was so popular in addition to was perceived to be so sufficient that most people overlooked any gaps in its explanation. H u y g e n s & N e w t o n Even though ‘action at a distance’ was still mysterious, people accepted it as fact. If ‘action at a distance’ is okay, then there is no need as long as aether. If there is no need as long as aether, there can be no waves, in addition to thus no wave theory.

L e S a g e & K i n e t i c s George-Louis Le Sage (1724-1803) – Geneva Proposed a ‘corpuscular’ explanation of gravitation Space is filled by countless tiny particles bouncing in all directions at high speeds. A single body isolated in space would be in a sea of these particles, in addition to would be bombarded by them equally from every direction. Since it is receiving an equal push from every direction, it will remain motionless. L e S a g e & K i n e t i c s L e S a g e & K i n e t i c s If two bodies are near each other, the situation is different. Two bodies in space shield each other from some of the particle streams on the sides facing each other. Since there are less particles in the shielded space between the bodies, they will move into that space. Objects are not attracted toward each other, but pushed toward each other (by net impulse)

L e S a g e & K i n e t i c s L e S a g e & K i n e t i c s 2 major flaws in the theory: A moving planet would receive more vigorous blows on its front side, so it should slow down Experience vs. theory: Experience: the strength of the gravitational pull between objects is proportional to the products of their masses Le Sage: the strength of the gravitational pull between objects is proportional to the product of their volumes. L e S a g e & F a t i o Controversy surrounding whether Le Sage is the original creator of this theory Theory is derivative of ( in addition to possibly identical to) Nicolas Fatio de Duillier’s kinetic theory of gravitation. Le Sage was known to be obsessed with Fatio’s writings.

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L e S a g e & F a t i o Claimed that Fatio’s theory was different in that it proposed “elastic collisions,” which Le Sage said did not work as a theory of gravity. Also claimed that he came up with the theory on his own be as long as e he read any Fatio. Problem: Others who read Fatio’s work claimed that he never proposed “elastic collisions.” B r a d l e y & S t e l l a r A b e r r a t i o n James Bradley (1693-1762) – English – Ox as long as d 1728 – Discovered stellar aberration Stellar aberration – The effect of an apparent motion in the heavens because of the relative motion of the observer on a moving Earth B r a d l e y & S t e l l a r A b e r r a t i o n

B r a d l e y & S t e l l a r A b e r r a t i o n B r a d l e y & S t e l l a r A b e r r a t i o n E u l e r & M a s s Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) – Swiss – Imperial Russian Academy, Berlin Academy Favored the wave theory because: Objects do not lose any detectable mass from emitting light If light is corpuscular, it would have some mass, in addition to this mass would have to come from the object emitting it

M a x w e l l ‘ s M o d e l Small particles would be displaced every time the current through the wire stops or starts Displacement in the small particles = electric field Vortices = magnetic field This means that a wire with constant current only produces a magnetic field, while a current that starts in addition to stops produces both Stress from the displacement of the equilibrium in this model = electrostatic as long as ce M a x w e l l ‘ s M o d e l Maxwell had some problems with aether Permanent magnets would have vortices as long as an indefinite amount of time All known fluids that have vortices are also viscuous Nevertheless, he fiercely in addition to continuously defended its existence He wanted to do away with the ‘mystical’ concept of action at a distance also hinted that aether could have something to do with consciousness, like a physical replacement as long as spiritual substance A e t h e r T o d a y Einstein’s theory of relativity removes the need as long as a substantial aether according to the general thinking of physicists today no need as long as a universal frame of reference space-time serves as unifier Einstein’s theory of relativity removes the need as long as a substantial aether according to the general thinking of physicists today

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