Measurements in addition to Modeling of Size Distributions, Settling in addition to Dispersions Rates of Oil Droplets in Turbulent Flows Balaji Gopalan, Edwin Malkiel in addition to Joseph Katz Mechanical Engineering , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD 21218

Measurements in addition to Modeling of Size Distributions, Settling in addition to Dispersions Rates of Oil Droplets in Turbulent Flows Balaji Gopalan, Edwin Malkiel in addition to Joseph Katz Mechanical Engineering , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD 21218 www.phwiki.com

Measurements in addition to Modeling of Size Distributions, Settling in addition to Dispersions Rates of Oil Droplets in Turbulent Flows Balaji Gopalan, Edwin Malkiel in addition to Joseph Katz Mechanical Engineering , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD 21218

Macnguyen, Curtis, Founder and Principal – Head Portfolio Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Re= 190 Re= 195 Re= 214 Figure 3: PDF of droplet fluctuation velocity with mean subtracted in addition to scaled by droplet velocity rms as long as Re = 190 Current Data Bracket denotes ensemble average over all droplet tracks in addition to denominator is fluid velocity rms Conclusions Figure 3 shows that the PDF of the droplet velocity fluctuation. It is close to Gaussian. The close agreement between the recently obtained mean rise velocity with that obtained by Friedman & Katz (2002) is shown in Figure 4. For certain Stokes number the droplet rms velocity exceeds the fluid rms velocity as shown in Figure 5,6. As the Stokes number increases the droplet integral timescale decreases. Also the droplet integral timescale is proportional to the turbulence time scale. The Figures 9 in addition to 10 suggest the following functional relationship as long as diesel fuel droplets in water with the dimensionless diffusion increasing with the dimensionless turbulence level. Measurements in addition to Modeling of Size Distributions, Settling in addition to Dispersions Rates of Oil Droplets in Turbulent Flows Balaji Gopalan, Edwin Malkiel in addition to Joseph Katz Mechanical Engineering , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD 21218 Objective This project aims to measure in addition to parameterize the effects of turbulence in addition to oil properties on the mean settling velocity, dispersion (turbulent diffusion) rate, in addition to characteristic size distributions of oil droplets in sea water. The oil slicks as long as ming as a result of spills are broken up by waves in addition to turbulence into droplets. Quantitative data on the transport of these droplets by oceanic turbulence is needed as long as predicting in addition to modeling the environmental damage in addition to effectiveness of the approaches to treat oil spills . The measurements will be per as long as med in a specialized laboratory facility that enables generation of carefully controlled, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence at a wide range of fully characterized intensities in addition to length scales (Kolmogorov scale varying from 80 mm – 1mm), covering most turbulence levels that one may expect to find in coastal waters. Crude (e.g. Prudhoe Bay in addition to South Louisiana) in addition to processed oil droplets (e.g. Diesel oil) will be injected into the sample volume of size about 5cmx5cmx5cm, in addition to their three-dimensional trajectory will be measured at high resolution using high-speed digital holographic cinematography. The selected oils have varying viscosity, density in addition to surface tension, especially due to introduction of dispersants, in addition to the droplets vary in size from 30 mm to 2 mm. Since effectiveness of dispersants varies with water salinity, the measurements will be per as long as med in water with varying salt concentration. Currently we have the data as long as mean rise velocity in addition to dispersion rate in isotropic turbulence as long as diesel fuel droplets with size varying from (0.7-1.1 mm) in addition to zero salinity. High speed camera (Photron camera with resolution 1kx1k in addition to frame rate 2000 frames/s) capturing streaming holograms Spatial Filter Collimating Lens Spinning Grids Injector Demagnifying Lens Q – Switched, Diode pumped Pulsed Laser Section of Reconstructed Hologram Reference Friedman, P. D. in addition to Katz, J., Mean rise rate of droplets in isotropic turbulence, Physics of Fluids 14 (2002), pp. 3059-3073. Taylor, G. I., Diffusion by continuous movements, Proc. Roy. Soc .London . 2 (1921) , pp. 196-211. Website:: http://me.jhu.edu/~lefd/stratified/Diffusion/holomain.htm Experiment The test facility, illustrated in Figure 1, generates nearly isotropic turbulence with weak mean flow. This January experiments have been conducted with research grade diesel fuel LSRD-4 (Specific gravity 0.85), provided by Specified Fuels in addition to Chemicals inc. of Channel-view – Texas, as long as sizes varying from (0.6-1.2mm) at zero salinity in addition to water temperature of 20°C. 2D Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to calculate the turbulence parameters. Table 1.0 shows the turbulence parameters as long as the three grid rotational velocities as long as which data have been obtained. Data is recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames/s – 1000 frames/s) using the technique of digital holographic cinematography. In holography a reference beam is added to the object beam in addition to the resulting interference pattern ( having both amplitude in addition to phase in as long as mation) is recorded. This interference pattern can be numerically reconstructed at different distance along the longitudinal direction, providing a three dimensional in as long as mation of the sample volume. The data obtained in January in addition to the previous data that we have obtained has provided us with diesel droplet statistics of over 22000 separate droplets. Acknowledgement Funding as long as this project was provided by the Coastal Response Research Center www.crrc.unh.edu Figure 1: Isotropic Turbulence Generating Facility with One View Digital Holography Optical Setup Table 1: Turbulence facility data Figure 7: Variation of droplet integral timescale scaled by droplet response time with stokes number in horizontal direction Figure 8: Variation of droplet integral timescale scaled by droplet response time with stokes number in horizontal direction Figure 5: Variation of droplet rms velocity scaled by corresponding directional fluid rms velocity with stokes number in horizontal direction Figure 6: Variation of droplet rms velocity scaled by corresponding directional fluid rms velocity with stokes number in vertical direction Figure 4: Droplet mean rise velocity in turbulence compared with the results of Friedman & Katz (2002) Re= 190 Re= 195 Re= 214 Re= 190 Re= 195 Re= 214 Figure 9: Variation of droplet horizontal diffusion coefficient scaled by fluid integral length scale in addition to quiescent velocity with turbulence intensity scaled by quiescent velocity. Figure 10: Variation of droplet vertical diffusion coefficient scaled by fluid integral length scale in addition to quiescent velocity with turbulence intensity scaled by quiescent velocity. Bracket denotes ensemble average over all droplet tracks Nomenclature Figure 2: 3-D Diesel droplet tracks obtained from two view digital holography with velocity magnitude shown through color coding Bracket denotes ensemble average over all droplet tracks Figure 11: Comparison of dispersion in horizontal in addition to vertical direction scaled by directional fluid rms in addition to fluid integral time scale (Tf = L/u’) squared. The Dispersion starts of as a quadratic in addition to becomes linear at t/t ~ 40 as predicted by Taylor’s model. Droplets in all Figures implies Diesel Droplets

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