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MeasuresParent-child acculturation differenceCategorical version formed thr
Dickinson College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Tanya Nieri, PhD in addition to Matt Grindal, MADepartment of SociologyUniversity of California at RiversideAcknowledgements: Data were collected as part of the Parents in addition to Youth Study, funded by NIH, S. Coltrane & R. Parke, PIs, University of CA at Riverside Deconstructing the ?acculturation gap? in Mexican American familiesBackgroundAcculturation: process of cultural change as a result of encounters alongside a new or mainstream cultureAcculturation associated alongside higher risk of delinquencyEffect often attributed so that ?acculturation gap? ? parent-child differences in acculturation ? that undermines family functioningSome research supports this conclusion, but current research is limitedAcculturation differences not always measuredDirection of differences often assumed (child more American)Nature in addition to effects of other differences unexploredAny difference taken so that indicate a ?gap?Analyses do not reflect current theoretical understanding of acculturation as bidimensional Research questionsUsing a categorical approach so that acculturation measurement, what are the nature in addition to extent of parent-child acculturation differences?How do the different patterns of parent-child acculturation relate so that delinquent behavior?
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DataParents in addition to Youth Study ? study of fathering effects in European American in addition to Mexican American families in CA in addition to AZ392 families: 1 Middle school child in addition to both parentsRecruited through the schools, screened in consideration of eligbility, then randomly selected3 waves of interview surveys: 2004 (7th grade), 2005, 2006Sample193 Mexican American familiesYouths52% femaleMean age: 13 years27% foreign born12% took survey in SpanishMomsMean age: 37 years69% foreign born56% took survey in SpanishMean time in US: 17 yearsDadsMean age: 38 years70% foreign born58% took Survey in SpanishMean time in US: 19 yearsMeasuresAcculturationMexican American Cultural Values Scale (Saenz & Knight, 2010)Mexican Acculturation subscaleAmerican Acculturation subscaleValues range from 1- 550 itemsTotal acculturation Categorical version formed thru crosstabulation of two subscalesMexican, American, Lo Bicultural, Hi Bicultural, UnidentifiedMeasured separately in consideration of youth, mom, in addition to dad
MeasuresParent-child acculturation differenceCategorical version formed thru crosstabulation of youth acculturation in addition to parent (mom or dad) acculturationParent-child match (reference group)Child more American than parentParent more American than childNeither parent nor child more American (excluded from analysis)MeasuresDelinquencyLast month substance use, fighting, stealing, physically harm someoneDichotomous45% report some delinquency at baselineMeasuresControlsAgeGender (female reference group)Socioeconomic status ? mother?s educationGeneration status ? native-born parents vs. at least 1 foreign-born parent
Byzantine Fault Tolerance Authenticated Messages Authenticators Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) L. Lamport , R. Shostak , in addition to M. Pease. The Byzantine Generals Problem (1982) Byzantine Generals Problem BFT alongside Un-Auth. Messages Impossibility Results A Solution alongside Oral Messages ( n ? 3m + 1 ) A Solution alongside Oral Messages ( n ? 3m + 1 ) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) BFT alongside Auth. Messages A Solution alongside Signed Messages A Solution alongside Signed Messages So what?s wrong? M. Rabin Randomized Byzantine Generals (1983) A Randomized Solution So what is wrong? Fifteen years later? M. Castro in addition to B. Liskov Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (1999) PBFT Assumptions Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Results) State Machine Replication ? Multicast (3-phase) ? Backup Plan ? View Change (Stable) Checkpoints BFS: A Byzantine-Fault-Tolerant File System Performance Thoughts?
Results: AcculturationNote: %s may total so that more than 100 due so that rounding.Results: Acculturation differencesNote: %s may total so that more than 100 due so that rounding.Results: Delinquency
Results: DelinquencyResults: DelinquencyResults don?t change when we account in consideration of partial matches (eliminate hi vs. lo bicultural)we dichotomize match vs. any mismatchwe drop generation statuswe control in consideration of potential mechanisms: family factorsResults relative so that traditional linear version of parent-child acculturation differenceMean is Parent more Am than child (i.e., negative difference)Absolute value of mean difference is small (.5)DAD: Effects (ns) in direction of protection in consideration of children more Am than parMOM: Effects (significant at p
DiscussionNo effects of parent-child differences in delinquencyException: Children more American than moms have lower odds of delinquency Both results counter the ?acculturation gap? narrativePerhaps due so that absence of American-identified in sampleNo differences big enough or too few in the expected direction (Child more Am than parent)Again, possibly developmentalPerhaps due so that delinquency measurePerhaps due so that measuring acculturation in terms of values ? mechanism of effect may be something other than cultural valuesOr?perhaps because parent-child differences are not as problematic in Mexican American families as prior lit would suggestConclusionsNo definitive proof, but this is a call so that attention!Acculturation in addition to parent-child acculturation differences in Mexican American families are more complex than past research would suggestDifferent operationalizations of acculturation=different pathways so that delinquency (e.g., language in addition to monitoring)Need so that consider operationalization when hypothesizing in addition to modelingDifferences are not necessarily gaps ? label is inaccurate in addition to unnecessarily pathologizes family relationshipsDifferences are different ? need further explorationE.g., exceptional effect may signal whole different mechanism?access to/integration in American society?Gap? narrative is inaccurate in addition to unnecessarily pathologizing; needs revisionThanks in consideration of your attention.Tanya Nieri, tanyan@ucr Matthew Grindal, email@example.com
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