Measuring the Link Between Learning in addition to Per as long as mance Goals as long as the Presentation Assessment in Practice State of Testing in the States Language Check

Measuring the Link Between Learning in addition to Per as long as mance Goals as long as the Presentation Assessment in Practice State of Testing in the States Language Check www.phwiki.com

Measuring the Link Between Learning in addition to Per as long as mance Goals as long as the Presentation Assessment in Practice State of Testing in the States Language Check

Diaz, Elvia, Phoenix City Assistant Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Measuring the Link Between Learning in addition to Per as long as mance Eva L.Baker UCLA Graduate School of Education & In as long as mation Studies National Center as long as Research on Evaluation, St in addition to ards, in addition to Student Testing (CRESST) Supported by the Naval Education in addition to Training Comm in addition to , the Office of Naval Research, in addition to the Institute of Education Sciences July 27, 2005 – Arlington, VA The findings in addition to opinions expressed in this presentation do not reflect the positions or policies of the Naval Education in addition to Training Comm in addition to , the Office of Naval Research, or the Institute of Education Sciences Goals as long as the Presentation Consider methods to strengthen the link between learning in addition to per as long as mance Use cognitively based assessment to structure in addition to measure objectives during instruction, post-training in addition to on the job Emphasize design of core architecture reusable tools to build & measure effective, life-long competencies Identify benefits in addition to savings as long as the Navy National Center as long as Research on Evaluation, St in addition to ards, in addition to Student Testing (CRESST) Consortium of R&D per as long as mers led by UCLA: USC, Harvard, Stan as long as d, RAND, UC Santa Barbara, Colorado CRESST partners with other R&D organizations

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National Center as long as Research on Evaluation, St in addition to ards, in addition to Student Testing (CRESST) [Cont’d] Mission R&D in measurement, evaluation, in addition to technology leading to improvement in learning in addition to per as long as mance settings Set the national agenda in R&D in the field Validity, usability, credibility Focus on rapidly usable solutions in addition to tools Tools allow reduced cycle time from requirements to use National Center as long as Research on Evaluation, St in addition to ards, in addition to Student Testing (CRESST) [Cont’d] President-Elect AERA; 7 as long as mer presidents Chair, Board on Testing in addition to Assessment, National Research Council, The National Academies St in addition to ards as long as Educational in addition to Psychological Testing (1999) Army Science Board, Defense Science Board task as long as ces History of DoD R&D, ONR, NETC, OSD, ARI, TRADOC, ARL, U.S. Marine Corps; NATO Congressional councils in addition to testimony Multidisciplinary staff Assessment in Practice © 1965 Fantasy Records

State of Testing in the States External, varying st in addition to ards in addition to tests from States Range of targets (AYP) Short timeline to serious sanctions Raised scores only “OK” evidence of learning Are there incentives to measure “high st in addition to ards” Are there incentives to create assessments that respond to quality instruction Growing enthusiasm as long as use of classroom assessment as long as accountability Benchmark tests Need as long as new ways to think about the relationship of accountability, long-term learning in addition to per as long as mance Language Check Cognitive Model: research synthesis used to create architecture as long as tests in addition to measures ( in addition to as long as instruction) Ontology: as long as mal knowledge representation (in software) of a domain of knowledge, showing relationships—sources, experts, text, observation; used in tools as long as assessment design Formative assessment: assessment in as long as mation to pinpoint needs (gaps, misconceptions) as long as improvement in instruction or on-the-job Transfer: ability to use knowledge in different contexts Learning Research Efficient learning dem in addition to s underst in addition to ing of principles or big ideas (schema) in addition to their relationships (mental models) Learning design needs to take into account limits of working memory Strong evidence as long as as long as mative assessment: motivated practice with in as long as mative feedback Assessment design needs to link pre-, as long as mative, end-of-training, in addition to refresher measures Specification of full domain in addition to potential transfer areas

Measure Design: Learning Research Focus first on what is known about improved learning as the way to design measures: acquisition, retention, expertise, automaticity, transfer Science-based, domain-independent cognitive dem in addition to s (reusable) objects—paired with content in addition to context to achieve desired knowledge in addition to skills Criterion per as long as mance is based on expertise models (not simply rater judgments) Design in addition to arrangement of objects is architecture as long as learning in addition to measurement Measurement Purposes System or Program Needs sensing System monitoring Evaluation Improvement Accountability Individual/Team Selection/Placement Opt out Diagnosis Formative/Progress Achievement Certification/Career Skill retention Transfer of learning 5 Vector Changes in Measurement/ Assessment Policy in addition to Practices From: One purpose, one measure To: Multiple purposes—well-designed measure(s) with proficiency st in addition to ards Difficult to retrofit measure designed as long as one purpose to serve another Evidence of technical quality Methods of aggregation Scaling Fairness

5-Vector Implications More than one purpose as long as data from tests, per as long as mance records, assessments improvement of trainee KSAs improvement of program effectiveness; evaluation of program or system readiness/effectiveness certification of individual/team per as long as mance personnel uses Challenge: comparability Multipurpose Measurement/ Metrics Place higher dem in addition to s on technical quality of measures Suggest more front-end design, to support adaptation in addition to repurposing Full representation (in ontologies or other software-supported structures) to link goals, enabling objectives, in addition to content A shift in the way to think about learning in addition to training Metrics are measures in a framework as long as interpretation; a ratio of achievement to time, cost, benchmarks CRESST Model-Based Assessment Reusable measurement objects to be linked to skill objects First, depends upon cognitive analysis (domain independent, e.g., problem solving) Essential to institute in a well-represented content or skill area (strategies in addition to knowledge developed from experts May use different as long as ms of cognitive analysis May behavioral as long as mats, templates multiple choice, simulated per as long as mance, AAR, game settings, written responses, knowledge representations (maps), traces of procedures in technology, checklists

Cognitive Human Capital Model-Based Assessment Content Underst in addition to ing Problem Solving Teamwork in addition to Collaboration Metacognition Communication Learning CRESST Approach Summarize scientific knowledge about learning Find cognitive elements that can be adapted in addition to reused in different topics, subjects in addition to age levels. These elements make a “family” of models Embed model in subject matter Focus on “Big” content ideas to support learning in addition to application Create templates, scoring schemes, training, in addition to reporting systems (authoring systems available) Conduct research (we do) to assure technical quality in addition to fairness Alignment Weak http://www.fly- as long as d.com/StepByStep-Front-Series.html http://www.powerofyoga.com/ copyright 2004 DK Cavanaugh U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, Http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis http://www.carinasoft.com

Generally, How HCMBA Works Underst in addition to ing a procedure Knowing what the components of the procedure are Knowing when to execute the procedure, including symptom detection, in addition to search strategies to confirm problem Knowing principles underlying procedure Knowing how to execute the procedure Knowing when the procedure is off task or not working Repair options Ability to explain task completed AND describe steps as long as a different system (transfer) Embed in content in addition to context Worked example Executing procedure with feedback loops Criterion testing—comparison benchmarks Content/ Skill Ontology Examples of Model-Based Assessment Risk Assessment EDO Cognitive dem in addition to s of skill include problem identification, judging urgency, constraints in addition to costs Content dem in addition to s involve prior knowledge in task, e.g., ship repair, knowledge needed to find alternatives, vendors, conflicting missions, etc., principles of optimization vs cycle time

EDO Risk Management Simulation CRESST/ USC/BTL’s iRides Ontology of M-16 Marksmanship Model-Based Example: M-16 Marksmanship Marksmanship Inventory Knowledge Assessment Knowledge Mapping Evaluation of Shooter Positions Shot-to-Shot Analysis Cognitive Dem in addition to Fidelity Current Work: Per as long as mance Sensing Diagnosis/ Prescription using technologies – sensors, ontologies, in addition to Bayes nets – to identify knowledge gaps in addition to determine remediation in addition to feedback Building on the science of measures of per as long as mance

Diaz, Elvia Arizona Republic Phoenix City Assistant Editor www.phwiki.com

M-16 Marksmanship Example Scenario “The shooter is calling right but his rounds are hitting left of the target.” Task “Diagnose in addition to then correct the shooter’s problem” In as long as mation sources Position Target Shooter’s notebook Rifle Mental state, gear, fatigue, anxiety Wind flags M-16 Marksmanship Improvement Diagnosis in addition to prescription individualized feedback in addition to content Sensing in addition to assessment in as long as mation content Language Check Validity: appropriate inferences are drawn from test(s) Reliability: assessments give consistent in addition to stable findings Accuracy: respondents are placed in categories where they belong

CRESST Evidence-Based Validity Criteria as long as HC Assessment Models Cognitive complexity Reliable or dependable Accuracy of content/skill domain Instructionally sensitive Transfer in addition to generalization Learning focused Validity evidence reported as long as each purpose Fair Credible Baker, O’Neil, & Linn, American Psychologist, 1993 Interplay of Model-Based Design, Development, in addition to Validity Evidence Experiment on prompt specificity Studies of extended embedded assessments Studies of rater agreement in addition to training Studies of collaborative assessment Studies of utility across age ranges in addition to subjects Reusable models (without CRESST h in addition to s-on) Scaling-up to thous in addition to s of examinees in a as long as mal context Experimental studies of prior knowledge Criterion validity studies Studies of generalizability within subject domains Studies of L1 impact Studies of OTL Studies of instructor’s knowledge Cost in addition to feasibility studies Prediction of distal outcomes Experimental studies of instructional sensitivity Report Objects

Back Up Marksmanship Knowledge Inventory Diagnosis in addition to prescription Output of the recommender: areas needing remediation in addition to prescribed content

Diaz, Elvia Phoenix City Assistant Editor

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