Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware Software Reminders In as long as mation Systems: The System of Hardware Components Processing the Inputs Processing the Inputs: The Processor

Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware Software Reminders In as long as mation Systems: The System of Hardware Components Processing the Inputs Processing the Inputs: The Processor www.phwiki.com

Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware Software Reminders In as long as mation Systems: The System of Hardware Components Processing the Inputs Processing the Inputs: The Processor

Lynn, Marlene, News Anchor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware Software Tuesday September 13, 2005 Reminders Reading For today Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Hardware section For next week Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section Homework Homework Two is now available Due this Friday, 9/16 by 5pm Several questions require you to go in addition to search as long as in as long as mation on Microsoft’s site! Next week’s class session: Networks MIS club luncheon tomorrow Tomorrow, noon-2pm Mendoza 3rd floor faculty lounge Representatives of firms recruiting MIS students will be there Bring resumes! Never too early to start thinking about internships in addition to getting to know recruiters In as long as mation Systems: The System of Hardware Components Input Devices Memory in addition to Processor Storage in addition to Output Devices

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Processing the Inputs Processing device works h in addition to in h in addition to with Memory (book uses primary storage as a synonym as long as this) To process Data transferred to the system by the input devices Instructions from the operating system in addition to software applications Processing the Inputs: The Processor Processors can vary according to Size – how much data they can process at a time Speed – how fast they execute instructions Coordinated or multi-processing – how many processors work together The materials from which they are made How fast they can communicate with memory in addition to with each other Of course this affects the cost! The trick is to buy the right processor as long as the task at h in addition to ! Examples WalMart’s transaction processing system Individual executive’s spreadsheet analysis Processing the Inputs: Memory Memory varies according to Size – how much capacity it has Volatility – whether you lose what’s in it when the electricity goes off Function – ROM (read-only memory) holds permanent instructions whereas RAM (r in addition to om access memory) holds temporary data in addition to instructions Speed – How fast it can communicate with the processor (bus speed) How close it is located to the processor (cache memory) Again, you must match your memory purchase to the tasks you intend to per as long as m

Storing the Output Secondary or long-term storage is used to permanently store data or output Greater capacity in addition to greater economy than memory Many different types of secondary storage devices that vary by Capacity Cost Speed of data retrieval Access method Storing the Output Secondary storage devices Hard disk Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks (RAID) Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) CD-recordable (CD-R) discs CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs Digital versatile disc (DVD) Memory cards Exp in addition to able storage Storage Area Network (SAN) Guess what! You have to match your storage device to the tasks you are undertaking! What a Hard Disk Looks Like

Comparison of Secondary Device Capacities in addition to Cost Displaying the Output There are also countless ways to display the output of your in as long as mation processing Output device types Computer screen Printer Mobile device Telephone Head phones Need I say it again! Match the output device to your needs in addition to budget! Computer System Types Very often all the input, output, processing, memory, in addition to storage devices will come bundled together in a computer system you buy as a whole The major computer systems types are H in addition to held computers Portable computers Thin client Desktop computers Workstations Servers Mainframe computers Supercomputers Each type has a very different role in life! Your job, of course, is to choose which best fits your organization’s needs in addition to budget

Comparison of Major Computer System Types MIPS: Millions of instructions per second Teraflop: A trillion floating point operations per second H in addition to held Device Example Smithsonian Provide visitors with wireless h in addition to held devices Using the devices visitors can Track their progress through the exhibits Map Interactive list of exhibits Guided tours to follow Instant messaging Location tracking as long as other members of your group Enhance exhibits Links to hundreds of video clips in addition to pictures Scavenger hunts Interactive video clips of items people can’t actually see Inside of Thomas Jefferson’s desk Maps to areas with related displays Create scrapbooks Centrally stored Store in as long as mation about your visit that can be retreived in subsequent visits Technology used Wireless Hewlett-Packard iPaq HX4700 h in addition to helds connect to St in addition to ard back-end servers Using the 802.11b (WiFi) st in addition to ard in addition to Content is pulled from existent multimedia exhibits that the Smithsonian has developed over the years Scrapbooking feature is simply website bookmarking in a different context Thin Client Example Oakl in addition to County, Michigan Background Beginning in 90’s purchased 3,600 PCs to support county employees By 2002, 900 PCs were past their useful life Needed to find most cost effective method as long as replacing old desktop PCs Chose thin client approach Lower cost alternative as long as desktop Computing power could be managed at the server level, driving down costs Easier to adopt new operating system because maintenance would only occur on server Better disaster recovery – users’ files stored centrally Technology Used old PCs as thin clients Thin client users got new flat-screen monitors in addition to keyboards Upgraded county’s local area network to gigabyte strength Necessary as long as adequate software response times Savings Savings from moving 285 users to thin clients amounted to $744,000 Additional 540 new thin client users will save $1.4 million Savings in hardware costs, support time, in addition to cost-effective software license management

What a Mainframe Looks Like Mainframe Example AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) Members 35 million members 76 million baby-boomers preparing as long as retirement Central customer database Can be accessed by Members Trading partners Insurance providers Retirement communities Technology Mainframe used as long as customer database Centralized Member in as long as mation can be maintained in addition to secured independently of the numerous IT applications that use it Reliable Scalable Will support increasing numbers of transactions as membership grows Continuously updated Makes it easier to market products in addition to services to its members Application-independent Common interface to the database as long as suppliers St in addition to ard method as long as integrating applications with the database What a SuperComputer Looks Like Terabyte: A thous in addition to billion bytes or a thous in addition to gigabytes Gigaflop: One billion floating point operations per second

Supercomputer Example IBM’s Blue Gene/L at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 131,072 microprocessors 135.3 trillion floating-point operations per second (135.3 teraflops) Used as long as Nuclear weapons simulations Biochemical applications Per as long as m intricate calculations to simulate protein folding specified by genetic codes Overview of Software Computer programs: sequences of instructions Two Types Systems software: coordinates the activities of hardware in addition to programs Application software: helps users solve particular problems Supporting Individual, Group, in addition to Organizational Goals Sphere of influence: the scope of problems in addition to opportunities addressed by a particular software application Personal Workgroup Enterprise

Software: Operating System When selecting an operating system, you must consider the current in addition to future requirements as long as application software to meet the needs of the organization. In addition, your choice of a particular operating system must be consistent with your choice of hardware. Systems Software: Operating Systems Operating system (OS): set of programs that control the hardware in addition to act as an interface with applications Common hardware functions Get input (e.g., keyboard) Retrieve data from disks in addition to store data on disks Display in as long as mation on a monitor or printer Operating Systems

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Operating Systems User interface Allows individuals to access in addition to comm in addition to the computer system Comm in addition to -based user interface: uses text comm in addition to s Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons in addition to menus to send comm in addition to s to the computer system Operating Systems Hardware independence Application program interface (API): allows applications to make use of the operating system Memory management Control how memory is accessed in addition to maximize available memory in addition to storage Processing tasks Multitasking: more than one program running at the same time Time-sharing: more than one person using a computer system at the same time Scalability: ability to h in addition to le an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly Networking capability: features that aid users in connecting to a computer network Operating Systems

Operating Systems Access to system resources Protection against unauthorized access Logons in addition to passwords File management Ensures that files in secondary storage are Available when needed Protected from access by unauthorized users Current Operating Systems Operating System Example Open source operating systems (Linux) Increasing com as long as t level with this alternative Dominates as server operating system Why Lower total cost of ownership Lower capital investment Greater reliability in addition to uptime compared to commercial alternatives Greater flexibility in addition to control Faster, cheaper application development

Software Development Choose a programming language whose functional characteristics are appropriate as long as the task at h in addition to , taking into consideration the skills in addition to experience of the programming staff.

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