Military Psychology: Situation Awareness Situation Awareness Definitions Levels of SA Situation Awareness Components
McGraw, Jay, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Military Psychology: Situation Awareness Dr. Steve Kass University of West Florida Situation Awareness The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time in addition to space, the comprehension of their meaning, in addition to the projection of their status in the near future (Endsley, 1988) -Skilled behavior that encompasses the processes by which task-relevant in as long as mation is extracted, integrated, assessed, in addition to acted upon (Kass, Herschler, & Companion, 1991). Continuous extraction of environmental in as long as mation, integration of this in as long as mation with previous knowledge to as long as m a coherent mental picture, in addition to the use of that picture in directing further perception in addition to anticipating future events (Dominguez, 1994). Situation Awareness Definitions Is SA a construct, phenomenon, process, or product Levels of SA Levels of SA 1 Awareness of in as long as mation 2 Comprehension of its meaning 3 Projection of future status
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Situation Awareness Components Components of SA Spatial Awareness Loss of SA GLOC, spatial disorientation System Awareness Loss of SA insufficient scan, distraction, lack of checklist Task Awareness Loss of SA Competing tasks, poor task management, lack of vigilance Rasmussens Skill-, Rule-, in addition to Knowledge-based per as long as mance model Novice Expert Per as long as mance Attentional Dem in addition to High Low Analytic Intuitive Automatic Situation Awareness Model Perception of elements in Current Situation Level 1 Compre-hension of current Situation Level 2 Projection of Future Status Level 3 System Capability Interface Design Stress & Workload Complexity Automation SITUATION AWARENESS DECISION Per as long as mance Of Actions Goals & Objectives Preconceptions (Expectations) In as long as mation Processing Mechanisms Long Term Memory Stores Automaticity Abilities Experience Training Task/System Factors Individual Factors State of the Environment Feedback
Measuring SA Typical Constructs measured in trying to assess SA SA Workload Attention Pattern Recognition Per as long as mance Working Memory Mental Models Factors Affecting Loss of Situation Awareness Attention attentional dem in addition to s of controlled processes (k-based per as long as mance) Pattern Recognition inability to perceive pattern of cues (recognition-primed DM) Workload tasks too dem in addition to ing or too many at once Mental models inadequate underst in addition to ing of system or state Working Memory failure to adequately chunk in as long as mation Attention Narrowing of attention under stress (high workload) adversely impacts SA Examples: Commercial plane crashes in the Everglades when aircrew becomes fixated on a warning light while the plane slowly descends into the ground. Outfielder as long as the Mets tosses ball to a fan after making the second out while runner on base easily scores.
Pattern Recognition Perceptual Recognition comparing incoming stimulus in as long as mation with stored knowledge in order to categorize the in as long as mation. QB reading pattern of defense Workload Workload often used as a surrogate measure as long as SA. Note reference to workload in SA measures such as CLSA in addition to NASA TLX Mental Models Mental Models how people mentally represent the task they are per as long as ming Represent & organize info by interconnected chunks (schema) Experts organize schemata into larger, more meaningful/ easy to access chunks. Novices may not see all relevant connections Use mnemonic devices to help novices organize in addition to retrieve info
Working Memory Ability to chunk in as long as mation may be what distinguishes expert decision-making from that of novices Magical number 7 IBMUSANBCGREUWF Experts recall larger chunks of in as long as mation (more chess pieces) when they recognize a meaningful pattern. When the pattern is r in addition to om, per as long as mance same as novices. Commercial pilots may have to monitor in addition to react to up to 400 instruments in addition to gauges. Types of SA Measures Subjective Ratings E.g., China Lake SA Rating Scale, Situation Awareness Rating Technique, SA Supervisory Rating Form Per as long as mance-based Ability to regain control from dangerous attitudes Query SAGAT Situation Awareness Rating Technique Dem in addition to on attentional resources Supply of attentional resources Under-st in addition to ing of situation Low High
Per as long as mance-Based Measures of SA Per as long as mance-based SA measures ex: Ability to correct from unusual attitude (in simulator) Query-based Measures of SA SAGAT Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique Halt simulation Black-out displays R in addition to omly selected questions Pilot recall Problem of SA Measurement 6 OClock Problem Can not assess your awareness of the things you are not aware of. SA is Difficult to measure: Self-report measures – Only aware of what you are aware of Per as long as mance-based measures Intrusive, measure affects per as long as mance Query-based might only tap memory
Experiment: Driver Situation Awareness as a factor of Experience Level & Cell Phone Usage Kass, Cole, & Stanny, 2007 Driving Infractions Kass, Cole, & Stanny, 2007 Experiment: Driver Situation Awareness as a factor of Experience Level & Cell Phone Usage Improving Situation Awareness Cue Filtering eliminate irrelevant cues (clutter) that interfere with accurate assessment of situation Augmented Displays displays that highlight or overlay actual in as long as mation to make it more salient Spatial Organization arranging displays to capitalize on spatial relationships (e.g., pop-out effect) Automate Status Updates as the environment changes the system should warn the user of change Train Users to Improve Attention
Cue Filtering as long as Improving SA Removal of clutter (irrelevant cues) in training allows learner to identify relevant cues better Real-world clutter can then be gradually phased back into training. Spatial Organization in Display Design as long as Improving SA Display design capitalizing on spatial relationships Pop-out effect Tactile Situation Awareness System Tactile stimulation used to prevent spatial disorientation Tactile cues can provide status updates regardless of where attention is currently focused Human factors application of tactile research
Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) Map surrounding space to the torso tactually Intuitive in three dimensions Non-visual Non-competing Continuous source Utilizes seat of the pants sense TSAS Per as long as mance Means RMSE TSAS Off On Secondary Task No Yes M = 4.55 SD = 3.55 M = 4.33 SD = 3.48 M = 7.24 SD = 3.73 M = 5.75 SD = 3.06 RMSE as long as helicopter hover under 20/200 viewing conditions (White out) Secondary task was a simple arithmetic task Augmented Reality Displays Augmented Displays – display that improves upon reality by superimposing info over actual environment ex: thermal imaging color codes objects by temperature HUDs superimpose display in as long as mation on the PVA
Mindfulness Training in addition to SA Few, if any, attempts to improve SA have focused on the human component of the human-machine systems Research idea: mindfulness training to increase ability to concentrate in addition to improve attention Experiment: Mindfulness & SA Impact of mindfulness training on situation awareness while driving Mindfulness training Buddhist Psychology Class Control group Experimental Psychology Class SA questions correct (out of 9) Mindfulness Moving in addition to sharpening the focus of awareness within the field of consciousness. Concentration Actively maintaining ones controlled focus of attention as long as designated periods of time Experiment: Mindfulness & SA Impact of mindfulness training on situation awareness while driving p < .05. p < .01. SA Medical Training Gaba et als suggestions as long as training SA in medical applications Provide practice scanning instruments in addition to environment to maximize perception of cues from all relevant data streams Provide explicit training in allocation of attention using low fidelity simulations, in addition to multi-faceted training in high fidelity simulations Provide enhanced training in situation assessment in addition to on pattern matching of cues to known disease in addition to fault conditions
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