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Mind-Body Dualism Rene Descartes (1596-1650) The Mind-Body Duality
Arkansas State University, Beebe, US has reference to this Academic Journal, The Mind-Body Duality Source: Robert H. Wozniak serendip.brynmawr /Mind/Descartes.html Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Mind-Body Dualism Descartes The rational mind connects alongside the animal body at the pineal gland. Thus, mind affects body in addition to body affects mind. Animals have no minds. We now know the pineal gland does something else, but? Is there a ?mind? or ?soul? independent of the brain?
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17th Century Philosophy (1600?s) Causes in addition to effects must be of similar types: Physical cause leads so that physical effect. God is the only true cause ? Malebranche Spinoza?s double aspect theory ? mind in addition to body are both aspects of God in preestablished coordination. Leibnitz?s psychophysical parallelism ? causation is rejected, coordination remains. 18th Century Philosophy (1700?s) All is mind vs. all is body. Berkeley?s ?Immaterialism? ? There is no body because all matter is perceived by the mind in addition to can?t be known apart from it. Materialism ? there is no mind, only matter. Mental events don?t exist. La Mettrie, ?L?homme machine.? States of the soul depend upon states of the body. 19th Century Philosophy (1800?s) Localization of cerebral function showed that the brain is the organ of the mind. Mental states were shown so that affect the body. Trauma, mesmeric trance, mental suggestion. Huxley?s ?Epiphenomenalism? ? Mental states have no causal efficacy, like paint on a stone (neurophysiology is the stone, mind is the paint). We are ?conscious automata.?
Interactionism Carpenter ? mind in addition to brain interact: Light produces a change in nerves in the brain that results in mental sensation of seeing. Desire so that move is translated into commands so that the nerves that move muscles in voluntary motion. There exist circuits between mental in addition to physical activity. How this is accomplished is unknown. Dual-Aspect Monism Lewes ? mental in addition to physical processes are two aspects of the same psychophysical event. Mind is subjective while body is objective. Terms used so that describe the two are not inter-translatable. Lewes still provides the best argument in consideration of why psychology cannot be replaced by neuroscience. Mind-Stuff Theory Higher properties of mind are compounded from mental elements (pieces of mind-stuff). When molecules come together at a level of complexity sufficient so that form a brain in addition to nervous system, correlative mind-stuff forms consciousness.
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James? Idea of Mind-Stuff William James James adopted a pragmatic empirical parallelism of the sort many psychologists still support. The “simplest psycho-physic formula?? is a “blank unmediated correspondence, term in consideration of term, of the succession of states of consciousness alongside the succession of total brain processes .” Principles of Psychology, p. 182 Ongoing Controversy We still do not know how ?mind? emerges from ?body.? The nature of the relationship between specific mental states in addition to the neural substrate is still not understood. Those debating mind-body today largely express ideas that are versions of the philosophical arguments proposed over the past 250 years.
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