Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring

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Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring

Head, Leigh, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition Definition of a rock: A solid aggregate or mass of minerals A Rock is Made of Minerals Composition of minerals Elements Basic building blocks of minerals Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retains all the characteristics of an element

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Periodic Chart Composition of minerals Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (positive charges) in addition to neutrons (neutral charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells Idealized structure of an atom

3-Dimensional Electron Shells Composition of minerals Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost (valence) electrons to as long as m ions Ionic Bonding

Halite (NaCl) – An example of ionic bonding Composition of minerals Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Covalent compounds are generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic in addition to covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound (bonds are seldom 100% ionic or covalent in character) Covalent bonding – sharing of valence electrons

Composition of minerals Other types of bonding Metallic bonding Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms Weaker in addition to less common than ionic or covalent bonds Structure of minerals Minerals consist of an orderly array of atoms chemically bonded to as long as m a particular crystalline structure

Structure of minerals Polymorphs Two or more minerals with the same chemical composition but different crystalline structures Diamond in addition to graphite are good examples of polymorphs The trans as long as mation of one polymorph to another is called a phase change Diamond in addition to graphite – polymorphs of carbon Physical properties of minerals Crystal Form External expression of the orderly internal arrangement of atoms Crystal growth is often interrupted because of competition as long as space in addition to rapid loss of heat

The mineral garnet often exhibits good crystal as long as m Physical properties of minerals Luster Appearance of a mineral in reflected light Two basic categories Metallic Nonmetallic Other terms are used to further describe luster such as vitreous, silky, or earthy Galena is a lead sulfide that displays metallic luster

Physical properties of minerals Color Generally an unreliable diagnostic property to use as long as mineral identification Often highly variable as long as a given mineral due to slight changes in mineral chemistry Exotic colorations of some minerals produce gemstones Quartz (SiO2) exhibits a variety of colors Physical properties of minerals Streak Color of a mineral in its powdered as long as m Helpful in distinguishing different as long as ms of the same mineral Hardness Resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching All minerals are compared to a st in addition to ard scale called the Mohs scale of hardness

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Physical properties of minerals Cleavage Tendency to break along planes of weak bonding Produces flat, shiny surfaces Described by resulting geometric shapes Number of planes Angles between adjacent planes Three examples of perfect cleavage – fluorite, halite, in addition to calcite

Physical properties of minerals Fracture Absence of cleavage when a mineral is broken Specific Gravity Ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water Average value is approximately 2.7 Conchoidal fracture Physical properties of minerals Other properties Magnetism Reaction to hydrochloric acid Malleability Double refraction Taste Smell Elasticity

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