Modern Telescopes in addition to Ancient Skies New Views of the Universe Space Telescopes Electromagnetic Spectrum Hubble Trivia

Modern Telescopes in addition to Ancient Skies New Views of the Universe Space Telescopes Electromagnetic Spectrum Hubble Trivia www.phwiki.com

Modern Telescopes in addition to Ancient Skies New Views of the Universe Space Telescopes Electromagnetic Spectrum Hubble Trivia

Fox, Jay, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Modern Telescopes in addition to Ancient Skies New Views of the Universe An IU Lifelong Learning Class Tuesdays, May 10, 17, 24 II. Space Telescopes Space Telescopes NASA’s four Great Observatories Visible – Hubble Space Telescope Gamma rays – Compton Gamma Ray Obs. X-rays – Ch in addition to ra X-ray Observatory Infrared – Spitzer Space Telescope Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Hubble Trivia Launched April 24, 1990, by Space Shuttle Discovery First space-based visible-light telescope Also ultraviolet in addition to near-infrared Orbits about 380 miles (611 km) above Earth Named after astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies beyond our Milky Way determined that space is exp in addition to ing More Hubble Trivia The size of a school bus 43.5 feet (13.3 m) long “weighs” more than 12 tons (11,000 kg) Primary mirror 94.5 inches wide (2.4 m) The wings are solar panels that power the spacecraft’s instruments Keeping track of Hubble Where is Hubble now When can I see Hubble hubblesite.org/fun-. in addition to .-games www.heavens-above.com

Hubble’s greatest achievements Dark Energy Age of the Universe Baby galaxies Chemical makekup of extra-solar planets Black holes in galaxies Powerful stellar explosions Source of quasar light Forming Planets Comet impact on Jupiter Deaths of stars Beginning with Dark Energy What is the Universe made of Ordinary matter is only part of the story 96% of the Universe is something else “Redshift” of Galaxies The spectra of galaxies are shifted to the red: galaxies are moving away from us. The farther away a galaxy is, the faster it recedes from us!

Hubble’s Law The speeds of very distant galaxies tell us the Universe is exp in addition to ing faster today than in the past The brightness of stellar explosions tells us how far away galaxies are Space in addition to Ground in Partnership Supernova brightness measure with Hubble Velocities measured from the ground

The Universe is speeding up! The universe is exp in addition to ing faster today than it did in early times This expansion cannot be caused by ordinary or dark matter, which slows expansion. The acceleration suggests a new repulsive as long as ce (anti-gravity) acting on very large scales The New Force Is Called “Dark Energy” Dark energy accounts as long as 73% of the content of the universe Dark matter accounts as long as 23% The content we’re familiar with is only 4% What is Dark Energy We don’t know Identifying what dark energy is requires bigger telescopes in addition to new techniques

The Age of the Universe One of Hubble’s key observations Cepheid variable stars in the Virgo cluster Hubble narrowed the age to 13 – 14 billion years Baby Galaxies Deepest images of the most distant galaxies A scrapbook of the early universe Hubble images reveal “toddler” galaxies 400 to 800 million years after the Big Bang Unlike the Milky Way, baby galaxies take many shapes toothpicks links on a bracelet Hubble lets us witness how galaxies as long as m By studying galaxies at different eras, we can see how galaxies change over time. Hubble Deep Fields Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Hubble Ultra Deep Field Planets around other stars Ground-based telescopes find planets Hubble can measure their chemical makeup sodium, hydrogen, carbon, in addition to oxygen in the atmosphere of a Jupiter-sized planet Does life exist on extra-solar planets Hubble also measured the masses of two distant worlds One is the oldest known planet – 13 billion years

Monster Black Holes The centers of galaxies contain black holes with masses millions to billions times that of our Sun Big galaxies contain big black holes, small galaxies have mall black holes Black holes may grow with their galaxies, feasting on gas in addition to stars swirling around the hearts of those galaxies. Biggest Booms Hubble showed that these brief, bright flashes come from distant galaxies as long as ming stars at enormously high rates The “bursts“ are the collapse of massive stars A nearby gamma ray burst would burn away the ozone in Earth’s atmosphere Gamma ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe Quasar Light Hubble tracked down the “homes” of quasars, proving that these dynamos reside in the centers of galaxies Quasars are massive black holes swallowing stars in addition to has from their host galaxies Quasars are no larger than our solar system but outshine galaxies of hundreds of billions of stars.

Building Planets Hubble discovered that many young stars are surrounded by flattened disks of gas in addition to dust These disks, now known as “proplyds” (short as long as protoplanetary disks), are the likely birthplaces of new planetary system Hubble provided visual proof that pancake-shaped dust disks around young stars are common, suggesting that the building blocks as long as planet as long as mation are in place. Comet Impact In 1994, two dozen chunks of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 smashed into Jupiter Hubble captured the massive explosions that sent towering mushroom-shaped fireballs of hot gas into the Jovian sky Each impact left temporary black sooty scars in Jupiter’s planetary clouds. Stellar Deaths Planetary Nebulae: A Sun-like star’s death is a colorful event. Such stars die gracefully by ejecting their outer gaseous layers into space. The outer layers glow in vibrant colors of red, blue, in addition to green. Hubble revealed the details of this process, showing that the shapes of planetary nebulae are quite complex. Supernovae: Massive stars end in glorious explosions. Hubble found three mysterious rings of material encircling a doomed star that exploded as a supernova in 1987. During the years since the eruption, Hubble spied brightened spots on the middle ring caused by material ejected from the explosion slamming into it.

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Even More Hubble Trivia Hubble has taken more than 700,000 exposures in addition to probed more than 22,000 celestial objects. Hubble has whirled around Earth nearly 88,000 times, racking up 2.3 billion miles. The telescope’s observations have produced 23 terabytes of data, equal to the amount of text in 23 million novels. The Hubble data would fill two Library of Congress book collections. In Hubble’s 15-year lifetime, about 3,900 astronomers from all over the world have used the telescope to probe the universe. Astronomers have published more than 4,000 scientific papers on Hubble The Hubble Space Telescope The Ch in addition to ra X-Ray Telescope

How Do X-Ray Telescopes Work X-rays do not reflect off mirrors the same way that visible light does X-ray photons penetrate into the mirror in much the same way that bullets slam into a wall X-rays ricochet off mirrors like bullets off a wall X-ray telescopes are very different from optical telescopes. X-ray mirrors are precisely shaped in addition to aligned to incoming x-rays. They look more like barrels than the familiar dish mirrors of optical telescopes. Ch in addition to ra Factoids Ch in addition to ra flies 200 times higher than Hubble – more than 1/3 of the way to the moon! Ch in addition to ra can observe X-rays from clouds of gas so vast that it takes light five million years to go from one side to the other! During maneuvers from one target to the next, Ch in addition to ra slews more slowly than the minute h in addition to on a clock. At 45 feet long, Ch in addition to ra is the largest satellite the shuttle has ever launched! If Colorado were as smooth as Ch in addition to ra’s mirrors, Pikes Peak would be less than one inch tall! Ch in addition to ra’s resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a stop sign at a distance of twelve miles. The electrical power required to operate the Ch in addition to ra spacecraft in addition to instruments is 2 kilowatts, about the same power as a hair dryer. Ch in addition to ra can observe X-rays from particles up to the last second be as long as e they fall into a black hole!!! X-Rays from Young Suns Ch in addition to ra studies x-ray flares in Orion solar mass stars Early solar flares ionized protoplanetary disk, induced turbulence that may have “saved” the Earth from migrating into the Sun

Night Sky Viewing Scheduled nights Tuesday, May 17 Tuesday, May 24 Roof of Swain West Next Week Giant Telescopes New Views of the Universe – Planets around other Suns Kirkwood Obs in addition to Rooftop, weather permitting

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