MoonLite in addition to LunarEx penetrator missions to the Moon What Characterizes Penetrators PROS in addition to CONS Planetary Penetrators – History

MoonLite in addition to LunarEx penetrator missions to the Moon What Characterizes Penetrators  PROS in addition to CONS  Planetary Penetrators - History

MoonLite in addition to LunarEx penetrator missions to the Moon What Characterizes Penetrators PROS in addition to CONS Planetary Penetrators – History

Gebhart, Fred, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal MoonLite in addition to LunarEx penetrator missions to the Moon Alan Smith1, Martin Sweeting2,3, Rob Gowen1, Yang Gao2, Andrew Ball4, Andrew Coates1, Ian Craw as long as d5, Rob Scott6, Phil Church6, Tom Pike7 in addition to Lionel Wilson3 What Characterizes Penetrators Low mass instrumented packages (c.f. Lunar A 13.5Kg; DS-2 3.6Kg) High impact speed ~ 200-300 m.s-1 Very rugged ~10-50kgee Few metres surface penetration Highly autonomous scientific payloads SINGLE-PIECE PENETRATOR ALUMINIUM NOSE SECTION TUNGSTEN TIP DETACHABLE De-orbit in addition to attitude control STAGE ALUMINIUM CASING Payload DESCENT CAMERA IMPACT ACCELEROMETER SEISMOMETERS/TILTMETER THERMAL SENSING (TEMP, CONDUCTIVITY,HEAT FLOW) GEOCHEMISTRY (E.G. WATER/VOLATILES DETECTOR) GROUND CAMERA (MINALOGY/ASTROBIOLOGY) OTHER (permitivity, magnetometer, radiation monitor) ESTIMATED PENETRATOR SIZE LENGTH:- 480mm to 600mm (8:1 to 10:1 RATIO) DIAMETER:- 60mm ESTIMATED MASS 13kg POINT OF SEPARATION Penetrator Descent Module Design Concept Plat as long as m S/C SUPPORT AOCS STRUCTURE POWER/THERMAL COMMS CONTROL & DATA HANDLING

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PROS in addition to CONS PROS It is difficult to envisage any other method which allows widely spaced surface exploration of airless planetary bodies that is not prohibitively expensive. Thruster descent technology through an atmospheric body can allow more specific targetting of surface locations as long as investigation than as long as parachute or balloon investigations. Able to target areas which are not accessible to soft l in addition to ers. Provide ground truth as long as interpreting remote sensing data. CONS Can achieve key science, but low payload mass in addition to high-gee constraints will limit capability c.f. soft l in addition to ers. Limited Communications due to finite battery life. Surviving as long as long periods as long as e.g. seismic network will be a challenge with limited mass. (Insulation in addition to RHU’s with primary batteries) good as long as pre-cursor investigations, seismic networks, in addition to cost effective targetting of specific terrain features. good also as long as a first step to exploration. Planetary Penetrators – History Mars96 (Russia) failed to leave Earth orbit DS2 (Mars) NASA 1999 Many paper studies in addition to ground trials No survivable high velocity impacting probe has been successfully operated on any extraterrestrial body TRL 5/6 Japanese Lunar-A cancelled (maybe now to fly on Russian Lunar Glob ) Suitable Bodies as long as Investigation Moon (MoonLite- UK Intiative/LunarEX – Cosmic Vision) – is closeby – ideal technical demonstrator + excellent science (polar water, core structure, astrobiology ) Airless -> like Europa, Enceladus – Very cold (polar traps) -> like Europa, Enceladus,Titan Europa,Titan/Enceladus (Cosmic Vision) Astrobiology, interior ocean(s). Europa – very high radiation environment – Titan has an atmosphere – different approach !!! NEO/Asteroids – Accelerometer particularly interesting as long as investigating internal structure Etc, etc, (Mars, Venus, Mercury, Pluto, Triton, )

UK Penetrator Consortium – History Jan 2006 – First meeting of consortium, now exp in addition to ed to 8 UK institutes in addition to 3 industries Dec 2006 – UK Research Council commissioned report of low cost lunar missions, MoonLITE (penetrator) in addition to MoonRaker (l in addition to er), MoonLITE given top priority. Apr 2007 – First funding in place as long as penetrator trials June 2007 – ESA Cosmic Vision proposals LunarEx Jupiter-Europa (penetrator element) Saturn-Enceladus (penetrator element) July 2007 – MoonLITE considered as part of a NASA-BNSC bilateral programme MoonLITE in addition to LunarEx MoonLITE 4 penetrators Limited scientific payload 1 year duration Launch ~ 2011 UK mission LunarEx 4+ penetrators More sophisticated scientific payload 1 year duration Launch ~2016 European mission Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Irel in addition to , Pol in addition to , Russia,UK Terminology Descent Module, consisting of: Penetrator De-orbit (delta v ~ 1.7 km.s-1) in addition to attitude control system Descent Camera The Descent Module is a spacecraft in its own right, albeit rather short lived.

Feasibility Military have been successfully firing instrumented projectiles as long as many years to at least comparable levels of gee as long as ces expected. Target materials have been mostly concrete in addition to steel but include s in addition to in addition to ice. 40,000gee qualified electronics exist (re-used !) When asked to describe the condition of a probe that had impacted 2m of concrete at 300 m.s-1 a UK expert described the device as ‘a bit scratched’! Examples of hi-gee electronic systems Designed in addition to tested : Communication systems 36 GHz antenna, receiver in addition to electronic fuze tested to 45 kgee Dataloggers 8 channel, 1 MHz sampling rate tested to 60 kgee MEMS devices (accelerometers, gyros) Tested to 50 kgee MMIC devices Tested to 20 kgee TRL 6 MMIC chip tested to 20 kgee Communication system in addition to electronic fuze tested to 45 kgee MoonLITE/LunarEX – Mission Description Delivery in addition to Communications Spacecraft (Orbiter). Deliver penetrators to ejection orbit, provide pre-ejection health status, in addition to relay communications. Orbiter Payload: 4 Descent Probes (each containing ~12 kg penetrator + ~23 kg de-orbit in addition to attitude control). L in addition to ing sites: Globally spaced Far side, Polar region(s), One near an Apollo l in addition to ing site as long as calibration. Duration: >1 year as long as seismic network. Other science does not require so long (perhaps a few Lunar cycles as long as heat flow in addition to volatiles much less). Penetrator Design: Single Body as long as simplicity in addition to risk avoidance. Battery powered with comprehensive power saving techniques.

MoonLITE/LunarEX – Mission Sequence Launch & cruise phase Deployment Deploy descent probes from lunar orbit, using a de-orbit motor to achieve near vertical impact. Attitude control to achieve orientation of penetrator to be aligned with velocity vector. Penetration ~3 metres Camera to be used during descent to characterize l in addition to ing site Telemetry transmission during descent as long as health status Impact accelerometer (to determine penetration depth & regolith mechanical properties) L in addition to ed Phase Telemeter final descent images in addition to accelerometer data Per as long as m in addition to telemeter science as long as ~1year. MoonLITE – Science The Origin in addition to Evolution of Planetary Bodies NASA Lunar Prospector Water in addition to its profound implications as long as life in addition to exploration Science – Polar Volatiles A suite of instruments will detect in addition to characterise volatiles (including water) within shaded craters at both poles Astrobiologically important possibly remnant of the original seeding of planets by comets may provide evidence of important cosmic-ray mediated organic synthesis Vital to the future manned exploration of the Moon NASA Lunar Prospector Prototype, ruggedized ion trap mass-spectrometer Open University

Science – Seismology A global network of seismometers will tell us: Size in addition to physical state of the Lunar Core Structure of the Lunar Mantle Thickness of the far side crust The origin of the enigmatic shallow moon-quakes The seismic environment at potential manned l in addition to ing sites Science – Geochemistry X-ray spectroscopy at multiple, diverse sites will address: Lunar Geophysical diversity Ground truth as long as remote sensing XRS on Beagle-2 Leicester University K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Zr Science – Heat Flow Heat flow measurements will be made at diverse sites, telling us: In as long as mation about the composition in addition to thermal evolution of planetary interiors Whether the Th concentration in the PKT is a surface or mantle phenomina NASA Lunar Prospector

Payload Core Seismology Water in addition to volatile detection Accelerometer Desirable Heat Flow Geochemistry/XRF Descent camera Mineralogy Radiation Monitor Ion trap spectrometer (200g, 10-100amu) (Open University) LunarEx LunarEx Payload

Key Technologies Payload instruments – ruggedization Batteries – Availability (Lunar-A) Communications – A trailing antenna would require development Structure material (Aluminium, carbon composite under consideration – needed as long as heatflow where trailing antenna is not available) Sample acquisition Thermal control (RHUs probably needed as long as polar penetrators) AOCS (attitude control in addition to de-orbit motor) Spacecraft attachment in addition to ejection mechanism Penetrator Development Programme Phase 1: Modelling (until Jan 2008) Key trade studies (Power, Descent, Structure material, Data flow, Thermal) Interface & System definition Penetrator structure modelling Procurement strategy Phase 2: Trials (until Jan 2010) Payload element robustness proofing Penetrator structure trials (March 2008) Payload selection in addition to definition Baseline accommodation Phase 3: EM (until Jan 2012) Design in addition to Qualification Phase 4: FM (until Jan 2013) Flight build in addition to non-destructive testing Generic Mission Specific For more in as long as mation visit: or in addition to follow the links Or contact Alan Smith on:

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