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Much of political speech is focused on: Analysis of Presentation Policy Arguments
Chatham College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Policy Arguments Framing the Debate Using Power Analysis of Presentation Did Walter make a persuasive argument? What other information would you have liked from Walter? Was his presentation effective? Why or Why not? Much of political speech is focused on: Energizing or mobilizing supporters. Persuading the general public or opponents. Marginalizing opponents who can not be persuaded.
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Political Speech Relies On: Framing arguments in a way that persuades individuals that the proposal is fair or in their own best interest. Types of Policy Arguments (Dunn, 1983) Authoritative (based on status of decision-maker; knowledge or information held by the decision-maker). Example: elected official, scientist, or other expert. Intuitive (based on personal insight of decision-makers) Analycentric ( use of scientific or mathematical rules guided the decision) Example: cost-benefit analysis; lowest cost of bid so that provide government services. Explanatory (arguments from cause or theories) Pragmatic (arguments from motivation, parallel cases, or analogy). Examples: motivation based on wanting so that achieve goals, assumptions about the similarities of two or more policy cases) Value-critical (based on arguments from ethics ? perceptions about the good or badness of a policy) Policy Claims Policy claims are the conclusions of policy arguments. Policy claims can be based on: 1) Facts 2) Value or Effectiveness of the Policy 3) Action (Which policy option should be adopted?).
Examples of Framing Policy Arguments Animal Rights or Support in consideration of No-kill shelters: fuzzy animals; portrayals of animals being harmed. Support in consideration of anti-poverty or health care legislation ? people who have been harmed by inability so that receive services. Settings or Formats Used: Debates: Speeches Floor Debates ? Congress; other government legislative bodies c-spanarchives /library/index.php?main_page=product_video_info&cPath=6_12&products_id=204692-1&highlight= Most often you will be called upon so that make a brief policy argument during a lobbying visit alongside a decision-maker. Most policy advocates prepare a brief list of talking points in consideration of lobbying visits. The information below is from: Advocacy 101: The Ins in addition to Outs of Scheduling in addition to Attending a Successful Congressional Visit. Prepared in consideration of families in addition to individuals attending the Defeat Autism Now! Conference, April 20-21, 2007 Organizing Your Presentation in addition to Talking Points Use the suggested talking points included or prepare other talking points so that keep your meeting focused in addition to so that the point. When developing your talking points, be sure so that think about those things that are of utmost importance in addition to which you want brought so that your Congressperson’s attention. Meetings are usually 20-30 minutes, so your presentation or planned talking points should not be longer than 20 minutes so that allow time in consideration of questions. For a truly successful meeting so that take place, the following tactics should also be employed: Decide on your one ASK in consideration of each meeting. Develop your message in consideration of the ASK in addition to limit yourself so that three key points that need so that be made; more than that in addition to you may lose focus. Decide who in your group will share their personal story about how autism affects their life. The personal story is important so that show just how this issue affects their constituents, but remember so that keep an eye on the time in addition to limit this part of the discussion in order so that make sure you have time so that share other information in addition to so that make your ASK. Bring a notepad so that take notes on points that are discussed, as well as a digital camera so that take pictures alongside your representative (see more about how pictures can be used so that generate coverage in the “Securing Media Coverage” section in Appendix B). Make sure you practice your presentation in addition to can deliver it in 20 minutes. Finally, prepare an information packet that includes copies of your organization’s brochures, fact sheets, articles or other collateral information.
Homework: 1.) Reading? 2.) Turn in assignments?
Talking Points (continued] Attending the Meeting: The following points are just a few things so that keep in mind once you’re actually in the meeting: Thank the representative in consideration of their time in addition to introduce yourself in addition to other members of your group. Begin the conversation by sharing the personal story mentioned previously. Remember that only one person should share his or her story. Sharing this personal information will help grab the Member’s in addition to the legislative assistant?s (LA) attention in addition to will give you in addition to your group credibility. Present your three key talking points in addition to your ASK. Explain why this ASK is important so that you, your community in addition to your organization (if you represent one). If the LA responds positively so that your ASK, thank them in addition to ask how you can best follow up alongside them. If the LA doesn’t respond positively so that your ASK, ask them what additional information they may need in addition to how they might become more willing so that engage on your issue. Ask the LA if they have any additional questions. Thank them in consideration of their time in addition to promise so that follow up. Following Up: Remember that meeting alongside your representative in addition to his or her staff is really just the first step in developing a positive, ongoing relationship. Once you return from Washington, send everyone you met a thank you note that summarizes your meeting in addition to outlines any action steps that were promised or requested in that meeting. Maintain your relationship by adding the representative in addition to his staff so that your group’s mailing list in addition to be sure so that send them relevant studies in addition to articles as they become available. Finally, always make an effort so that attend town hall meetings and/or fundraisers in consideration of your representative. Power is also needed so that persuade opponents or marginalize them. Power is especially important in lobbying: Sources of power include: Authority Position Expertise Money Knowledge Professional Status Information Votes Personal charisma/appearance Celebrity Race, ethnicity, gender, age, social class, etc. Social, personal, or business connections Media (mass mobilization; coalition building, lobbying campaigns, social movements) Use of legal tools in addition to procedures (such as class action law suits) Other Types of Power Include: Person ? so that ? person power. Establishing relationships alongside people; recruiting friends, relatives, & neighbors. Reward power ? giving money, positions, campaign donations in addition to other perks so that people in consideration of their support. Coercive power ? threatening harm so that people unless they comply (can include things like job loss, bad media coverage, ?dirty politics,? or boycotting a corporation?s products in addition to services. Referent power – being associated alongside desirable groups that people identify with. Value-based power ? being able so that appeal so that others based on shared values or ethics.
Power Can Be Actual ? used so that influence decisions. Potential ? can be acquired or flow from personal characteristics, position, or strength in numbers, but is not used. Substantive ? policy garners support because it is shaped in a way so that appeal so that the vested interest or values of potential supporters. (Policies can be changes so that appeal so that specific supporters) Procedural power. Techniques used in legislative processes so that limit decision-making so that certain groups, cut off debate, or otherwise influence the decisions made. One example, is the 60 vote closure rule in the U.S. Senate. Issues of Compliance so that existing laws in addition to procedures; whistle-blowing Dilemmas in Developing Power Resources: Some social groups have more power than others by virtue of their position in society. Members of marginalized groups often have few power resources (money, vote less often, limited access so that powerful decision-maker, etc). However, they do have strength in numbers (letter writing campaigns, rallies, participation in social movements; civil disobedience, media coverage). Techniques in consideration of Preparing in consideration of Lobbying First, Find out who is likely so that oppose or support a policy. Use: – Information available from legislative staff, other legislators, in addition to advocates. – Information on voting records from government, advocacy groups, in addition to political analysis web sites. – Media accounts or analysis of likely supporters or opponents – Personal knowledge about backgrounds in addition to past behavior of decision-makers. – Examining campaign contributions so that find out what groups in addition to individuals are likely so that influence the official
Additional Steps in Preparing in consideration of Lobbying: Analysis of a piece of legislation or a policy. Why is the decision-maker likely so that oppose or support it? How is the legislation likely so that fit his or her vested interest? Developing a policy argument containing facts, data, in addition to values that are likely so that influence individual legislators. ?Boiling down? the argument so that a set of specific talking points that can be used in personal (one on one meetings; group meetings, testimony at public hearings, media interviews). Talking points can be used by more than one advocate in addition to help establish consistency in getting out the message. Providing assistance so that decision-makers ? comments on bills; actually drafting legislation, or submitting your own analysis so that the legislator, providing facts that the legislator can use in developing his or her own argument; providing testimony at public hearings. Establishing advocacy/lobbying networks so that work in partnership alongside other groups in addition to so that maximize contacts in addition to influence. Note on Lobbying Restrictions Federal in addition to state lobbyists often provide gifts in addition to other perks so that legislators in exchange in consideration of their votes. These gifts are restricted at Federal in addition to state levels. Laws prevent nonprofit organizations in addition to government staff members from working in consideration of candidates during work hours. Nonprofit organizations may not make campaign donations (except in consideration of proposition campaigns in California). Nonprofit organizations incorporated under 501c 3 of the tax code may only use a limited amount of their funds (less than 20%) so that do any kind of lobbying. Nothing prohibits government or nonprofit employees from campaigning in consideration of candidates ?off the job.? Class Exercise Form a group of 4-5 people. Select a policy issue identified in the Assignment #2s that have been handed back. Prepare a set up talking points that could be used so that persuade a politician so that support your point of view on this issue. Use these guidelines: Decide on your one ASK in consideration of the meeting. Develop your message in consideration of the ASK in addition to limit yourself so that three key points that need so that be made. Decide who in your group will share their personal story the policy affects their life.
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