Multicultural Therapy Minority Groups Recurring Issue Multicultural Education Models Contemporary White Models
Penner, James, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Multicultural Therapy Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. The need as long as cultural competence There is a need as long as cultural competence within therapy. Traditional approaches have failed to meet the needs of minorities. A large percentage of the population of the United States is composed of people whose racial/ethnic background is something other than white. Minority Groups Most minority groups are: Without underrepresented in traditional clinical/counseling populations. There arent a lot of faculty members who are minorities. Racial & Gender domination perpetuates these issues. Mostly white, middle-class males who are the teachers & administrators.
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What do we see with minority patients More negative psychiatric diagnoses. Subst in addition to ard treatment. Inferior & differential counseling services as long as differing racial & ethnic patients. Underutilization of mental health services. Why Lack of minority therapists What are the issues with multicultural therapy Lack of attention & emphasis on social injustices & problems encountered by minorities. Sue & Smith: underrepresentation of minority groups in professional counseling training programs rein as long as ces the perception that therapy is generally irrelevant to their needs. Recurring Issue Discom as long as t of White Therapist working with someone different from them. This plays out in: Negative stereotyping. Lack of knowledge about the group of which the patient is a member. Generalized anxiety about working with different populations. Need: major re as long as m in graduate programs.
Multicultural Education Models Are we creating an environment in which we can foster cross-cultural awareness & underst in addition to ing Theories exposed to are monocultural. No research in the area of cross-cultural awareness development. Theoretical models imply that psychosocial development is uni as long as m as long as all members of society, regardless of cultural or racial background. Why arent these theories enough Sociopolitical factors such as SES, class, & power are largely ignored. Selected variables of the authors culture, such as individualism are emphasized. Many variables have limited applicability in pluralistic societies. What do the contemporary White Western Theories & Models emphasize Tendency to assume that psychosocial development occurs in a similarly orderly & uninterrupted progression as long as all. Ethnic & racial awareness & identity have not been considered noteworthy or integral within psychosocial development process.
Contemporary White Models Cultural biases & taboos of a given authors society, including those relating to racism, prejudice, in addition to discrimination have been built into the theories. Members of society who do not represent the dominant culture find that the models do not fit their life experiences. Theories of deviance, deprivation, disadvantage, in addition to abnormality are based on the experiences of various groups & how they differ from the model. Contemporary White Models The research has incorporated biases inherent in monocultural theoretical models. Multicultural Research High-status & low-status group how do individuals become aware of this Psychosocial development of minority groups. This new research is beginning to take sociopolitical factors into account. Quest as long as self-identity.
Oppression Oppression is a common approach. Uncom as long as table & radical framework as long as some. Dominant as long as ce. Less familiar to therapists, both cognitively & experimentally. Oppression, as a common experience, is the approach that provides a schema to the experiences of Asians, Latinos, African Americans, etc. Cross-cultural Training Models Need to emphasize: Competency: requires that the therapist be culturally aware, in touch with his/her own biases about minority patients, com as long as table with such differences, & sensitive to circumstances that may require the referral to circumstances that may require referral to same-culture therapist. Cross-cultural Training Models Second competency area: comm in addition to of knowledge, such as in as long as mation sets, that the culturally skilled therapist should have. Underst in addition to ing of the effects that the sociopolitical system within the U.S. has an oppressed persons, culture specific knowledge about the particular group being counseled, an underst in addition to ing of the institutional barriers to the use of mental health services by nondominant groups.
Future Clinicians Gain knowledge of specific minority groups. Focus on concerns such as value changes, acculturation, generational differences, parental pressures, dating, & religious issues. Supervision on these issues. Third Competency Therapeutic skills: should have a wide repertoire of verbal & nonverbal responses, the ability to send messages accurately & appropriately, in addition to the ability to use appropriate institution intervention. Assume a universalist approach or a culture-specific approach This is a controversy that has not yet been settled. The distinction between cultural & individual differences. A person should be seen as an individual & as a member of his/her own cultural group. Locke: you need to take into account the differences within a persons culture in the context of the dominant culture. Each culture is both dynamic & subjective, & his training stresses learning to work in different cultures rather than merely learning about cultures.
Therapists trained from the Euro-North American cultural belief system Value self-disclosure, highly verbal, & goal-oriented patients. Issues of self-disclosure How we interpret self-disclosure or lack there of . Need to take background into account. Does the patient feel safe to share If the therapist doesnt see self-disclosure, consider it resistant & nonproductive Other Issues Lack of role models in terms of therapists, faculty, & administrators, the traditional white majority student population attending programs will continue. Traditionally: therapy has been willing to accept culturally different people if they are willing to become acculturated in addition to reject their cultural distinctiveness. Some of the negative programs based on the melting pot philosophy. A strong conceptual framework Sociopolitical ramifications of therapy: Oppression Discrimination Racism Programs have to help trainees become aware of themselves as cultural beings. The culturally different patient becomes the object to be analyzed & studied. Focus on the stereotypes of the therapist.
Barriers to effective multicultural counseling instruction Melting pot myth Incongruent student expectations about therapy Overemphasis on verbal disclosure Overemphasis on abstract & non-problem-solving strategies. Ethnocentric worldview Ignorance of self-racism & cultural identity of others Monolingual orientation Overemphasis on long-range goals & the future. Lack of underst in addition to ing of the whole person Lack of underst in addition to ing of social focus Lack of appreciation as long as nonverbal communication Emphasize Culture Race Ethnicity Dominant culture Bi-culturalism Melting pot myth Pluarlism Oppression Cultural invasion Issues relating to power & internalized racism Marginality Lived experiences & contradictions Becoming Culturally Competent Ethnocentricity: a major obstacle to becoming culturally competent. Relatively few US scholars cite international journals. Only 60% US Scientists feel that being connected to international scholars is important.
Becoming Culturally Competent Xenophobia: unreasonable fear, distrust, hatred of strangers or as long as eigners or anything perceived as different. Difficulty accepting others worldviews. Accepting differences across cultures as simply differences. Universality assumptions. Becoming Culturally Competent Personality styles. Reality is defined according to ones cultural assumptions. People become insensitive to cultural variations among individuals & assume that their own view is the only right one. So How do we increase global competence & collaboration Enhance Cross-Cultural Awareness & Knowledge Increase our awareness & knowledge on a number of cross-cultural issues. Encourage study-abroad programs. Cultural immersion program. Require coursework. Require competency in a second language. Integrate cross-cultural issues & knowledge in our therapy curriculum.
Enhance Competency Promote cross-cultural research & supervision & consultation. Addressing Racism: Derald Wing Sue Why do we hold prejudices or stereotypes Need to underst in addition to our world Too much in as long as mation need to categorize Makes us feel better about ourselves John Duckitt History of Psychology & Prejudice Prior to the 1920s notion of race inferiority & white superiority. Race theories dominated psychological thinking. Black inferiority was thought of as due to evolution or genetics. Seen as intellectually inferior. Prejudice was seen as a natural response to inferior races.
Therapy Issues Conflicts over family Family responsibility & obligations Emphasis on autonomy, overt masculinity, & self-reliance (American values) Gender issues Homosexual & transgender Asians How view mental health problems
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