Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL Contents 1.Introdution Profile of Jinping Tunnel CJPL Site
Berkshire, Geoff, Film Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL Zhi ZENG CDEX Collaboration Symposium of the Sino-German GDT Cooperation Tübingen, Apr. 2013 Contents Introduction Muon Flux Measurement Muon Flux Simulation Muon Background in CJPL Summary 1.Introdution Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL
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The position of the Jinping tunnel Profile of Jinping Tunnel Elevation/m Tunnel length/m CJPL Tunnel CJPL Tunnel Jinping Mountain Elevation/m Yalong River East Yalong River west CJPL Site Traffic Tunnel A Traffic Tunnel B CJPL Entrance Main Hall Total Volume
Muon Background in DM Exp. Muon penetration; Neutrons produced by muon interactions; Gammas produced by muon interactions; Muon capture reactions(not important). 2. MUON FLUX MEASUREMENT Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL Detector &Electronic system A telescope system consisting of 2 groups, both of them is composed of 3 plastic scintillation detectors. The signal from PMT is fanned into 2 channels: One fed into a 100MHz b in addition to width FADC module, the other sent to logic OR modules after discriminated in addition to stretched. A signal generator as a r in addition to om trigger as long as dead time study also contribute system trigger gate. FADC converts the whole analog pulses to digital signals, which written into storage as long as offline analysis by DAQ program. 20 cm 1.0m×0.5m×0.05m
Muon event selected: Pulse Shape Discrimination(PSD) Muon energy deposit >= 10MeV in 5cm thickness detector, while gamma deposit energy <3MeV Distribution s of the pulse amplitudefollow L in addition to au distribution Cut threshold: 5000 FADC unit (1) The pulse amplitude threshold in PSD Test result on the ground (2) The rise/fall time distribution in PSD rise time distribution fall time distribution The acceptance regions as long as rise time in addition to fall time are 20 -60ns in addition to 420-600ns respectively. Noise events that fall out of these regions are th us discarded. Muon event selected: Pulse Shape Discrimination(PSD) Muon event selected: Restriction of triple-coincidence Fan In/Out Fan In/Out Fan In/Out PMT PMT PMT Disc. Disc. Disc. Logic OR FADC Counter 5cm 20 cm Trigger Logic AND Pulses from all the 3 detectors in the same group should pass through the pulse shape constraint in addition to the amplitude threshold. Muon Flux measurement correction (1) Dead time correction factor: >99.9% Using signal generator, serving as r in addition to om trigger, produces periodic pulses which are independent of physics events. Dead time correction factor: Defined as the ratio of recorded number to generated number of r in addition to om trigger events; Dead time correction factor: measured, higher than 99.9%. Muon Flux measurement correction (2) Edge effect correction: 93.4% Edge effect:Muon would pass the edge of the top or bottom scintillators but penetrate the whole thickness of the middle one. in thes cases, these events would not pass pulse amplitude threshold selected. using Monte Carlo method to calculate the correction factor, it is 93.4%. edge effect illustration Muon Flux measurement correction (3) detection efficiency correction (4) solid angle correction muon Flux: number of triple-coincident events
Muon Flux Measurement in CJPL Nov. 2010 to Dec. 2011, 231 days measurement, 28 events from two groups are pass all the constrain. After correction, get Muon flux in CJPL: (2.0 ±0.4) ×10-10cm-2s-1 the solid angle correction in CJPL is set to 1.0 as long as the angle distribution underground is unkown.
3. MUON FLUX SIMULATION Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL Incident Muon Energy Spectrum Assumptionmuon energy spectrum on the top of Jinping mountain (~4000 m) like that at sea level Gaisser Equation: :Muon energy on sea level(GeV) Computational Model in addition to program Assumption: CJPL lies in a hemisphere MUSIC: muon transportation. Fig. 2 Schematic of the mountain in addition to CJPLs location Muon energy threshold: Muon energy 860GeV~104GeV, integral muon flux in the ground is about 4.84×10-8 cm-2s-1.
Simulation results by MUSIC Average energy of residual muon : 370GeV Muon survival probability: 7.65×10-3 Muon flux in CJPL with 3.17×10-10cm-2s-1 (simulation) 2.0×10-10 cm-2s-1 (measurement Fig.3 Simulation results of residual muon flux Google Earth map as long as the elevation of Jinping Mount. voxeled JInping Mount in GEANT Google Elevation API pixel: 201301 CJPL CJPL average rock overburden/m exact simulation is processing! polar angle/deg. 4. MUON BACKGROUND IN CJPL Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL
Neutron by Muon with FLUKA Incident Muons Rock Air Concrete Schematic of computational model as long as secondary particles caused by muon Neutron >20MeV neutron < 20MeV Neutron yield by muons(n/): 0.2644(total). -->20MeV: 0.1321 —<20MeV: 0.1323 8.37×10-11 cm-2s-1 Neutron flux (by muon): Gamma by Muon with FLUKA Incident Muons Rock Air Concrete Schematic of computational model as long as secondary particles caused by muon Gamma yield by muons: 49.52 p/ Gamma flux by muon : 1.57×10-8 cm-2s-1 5. Summary Muon Flux Measurements in addition to Simulation at CJPL underground Labs in the world 2010 Thanks References  Heusser, G., Low radioactivity background techniques, 1995, Annual Reviews Inc: Palo Alto, CA, USA. p. 543-543. Allkofer O C. Introduction to Cosmic Radiation, 1987, Science Press: Beijing. p.155-159. A Bettini. Underground laboratories[J]. Nuclear Instruments in addition to Methods in Physics Research A.2011, 626-627: S64S68. M J Carson, J C Davies, E Daw, et al. Neutron background in large-scale xenon detectors as long as dark matter searches[J]. Astroparticle Physics . 2004,21: 667-687. J.M Carmona, S Cebrián, E Garca, et al. Neutron background at the Canfranc underground laboratory in addition to its contribution to the IGEX-DM dark matter experiment[J]. Astroparticle Physics .2004, 21: 523-533.  F E Gray, C Ruybal, J Totushek, et al. Cosmic ray muon flux at the San as long as d Underground Laboratory at Homestake[J]. Nuclear Instruments in addition to Methods in Physics Research A .2011, 638: 63-66.
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