NH3 in comets Motivation Radio observations Optical detections of NH2 (daughter) Infrared detections of NH3

NH3 in comets Motivation Radio observations Optical detections of NH2 (daughter) Infrared detections of NH3 www.phwiki.com

NH3 in comets Motivation Radio observations Optical detections of NH2 (daughter) Infrared detections of NH3

Balog, Sean, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal NH3 in comets with Mike Bird (RAIUB) William Sherwood (MPIfR) Wilhelm Altenhoff (MPIfR) Floris van der Tak (MPIfR) Karl Menten (MPIfR) Jennifer Hatchell (Exeter, ex-MPIfR) Motivation – NH3 along with CO2 in addition to H2O is a constituent of cometary ices. -Nitrogen chemistry in early solar nebula poorly understood (N2, NH3 in addition to N balance) – Spin temperature (from ortho/para ratio) implies as long as mation temperature of ices Radio observations Photo: William Sherwood

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Previous radio detections C/1983 D IRAS-Araki-Alcock (Altenhoff et al. 1983) C/1996 B2 Hyakutake (Palmer et al. 1996, Green Bank) C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp (Butler et al. 2002, Green Bank) C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp (Hirota et al. 1999, Nobeyama) C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp (Bird et al. 1997, Effelsberg) Direct detection Halley (Allen et al. 1987; Meier et al. 1994, Giotto) 6% 0.3% 1.8% 1.0-1.8% NH3 /H2O 0.1-2% Optical detections of NH2 (daughter) C/2002 T7 NH3 near 3 microns (Magee-Sauer et al. 2002) C/1999 S4 LINEAR (Kawakita et al. 2001) C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp & 153P/Ikeya-Zhang (Kawakita et al. 2004) Kawakita et al. 2002 reanalysis of earlier NH2 data OPR 3.33 Spin temp. 28K Spin temp. 30K NH3 /H2O = 0.5% Infrared detections of NH3 (lines often overlap with atmospheric absorptions) NH3 /H2O = Targets 2001,2002,2004 Images: T.Vsoske, T.Lovejoy, S.Kim, in addition to M.Jäger/G.Rheman C/2001 A2 (NEAT) C/2002 C1 (Ikeya-Zhang) (153P) C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) 2001 2002 2004

OH 1665/1667 MHz NH3 24 GHz NH3 24 GHz NH3 /H2O <= 0.5% Conclusions NH3 / H2O variable, 0.3-1.5% NH3 / H2O <= 0.5% in many comets: Halley in addition to Hale-Bopp may have been exceptional Consistency between radio / optically derived ratios Upcoming comet missions Deep Impact (NASA) 9P/Tempel 1 launch date Jan 12 2005 Impactor + cameras July 4 2005 Rosetta (ESA) 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko launched 2 March 2004 L in addition to er 2014 Rosetta Philae (l in addition to er) Balog, Sean Two Guys & Your Money - KFNN-AM Host www.phwiki.com

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