NIST’s Program in Nanotechnology Michael Casassa Director, Program Office Nation

NIST’s Program in Nanotechnology Michael Casassa Director, Program Office Nation www.phwiki.com

NIST’s Program in Nanotechnology Michael Casassa Director, Program Office Nation

Hiney, Grace, Food Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal NIST’s Program in Nanotechnology Michael Casassa Director, Program Office National Institute of St in addition to ards in addition to Technology National Planning Workshop – Nanoscale Science in addition to Engineering as long as Agriculture in addition to Food Systems November 18, 2002 “When you can measure what you are speaking about, you know something about it. But when you cannot measure it, your knowledge is of a meager in addition to unsatisfactory kind. It may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely advanced to the stage of science.” Metrology: The science of measurement; a system of measures William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 1824 – 1907 NIST works closely with scientists in addition to industry to develop the Nation’s metrology infrastructure necessary as long as scientific, technical, in addition to economic advances. NIST Assets Include: 3,000 employees 1,600 guest researchers $820 million annual budget NIST Laboratories – National measurement st in addition to ards Advanced Technology Program – $640 million current R&D partnerships with industry Manufacturing Extension Partnership – 400 centers nationwide to help small manufacturers Baldrige National Quality Award NIST’s mission is to develop in addition to promote measurement, st in addition to ards, in addition to technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, in addition to improve the quality of life. National Institute of St in addition to ards in addition to Technology

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Multidisciplinary expertise to develop measurements in addition to st in addition to ards to enable: Science Technology Innovation Trade Public benefit NIST Laboratories NIST plans in addition to works in close collaboration with customers: Industry Other agencies State in addition to local governments Measurement laboratories St in addition to ards organizations Gr in addition to Challenge: Instrumentation in addition to Metrology Measurements & St in addition to ards as long as Nanotechnology Measurements critical to underst in addition to ing of new phenomena needed to control production, ensure product quality, in addition to enable different parts to work together. size in addition to complexity of nanoscale objects will make the development of new measurement technologies more critical than ever. Facilities St in addition to ards in addition to traceability essential as long as trade. Gr in addition to Challenge: Instrumentation in addition to Metrology Measurement issues as long as new analytical tools in addition to supporting infrastructure. Resolution molecular to atomic spatial scales high speed temporal scales Sensitivity in addition to Specificity molecular or atomic level sensitivity in addition to specificity with simultaneous imaging in addition to identification simultaneous multiple spectroscopies as long as chemical in addition to physical properties 3-D characterization capability, atom by atom, or molecule by molecule, over many thous in addition to s of atoms. Improvements must be made in the physical underst in addition to ing of current instruments Supporting models, methods, st in addition to ards, data

Unique NIST Measurement in addition to Research Facilities Advanced Chemical Sciences Laboratory Provides critical capabilities as long as nanobiotechnology in addition to analytical chemistry research NIST Center as long as Neutron Research Most versatile neutron facility in the U.S. with over 1750 annual users Advanced Measurement Laboratory World’s premier measurement research facility (air quality, temperature, vibration, humidity) Completion targeted as long as 2004 Our traditional view of measurements in addition to st in addition to ards: Primary Labs Secondary Labs in addition to Customers Comparisons Traceability How does nanotechnology change this view Measurement St in addition to ards in addition to Traceability St in addition to ards in addition to Traceability as long as Nanotechnology Challenge: Deliver nanoscale traceability to the factory floor Opportunity: Develop quantum st in addition to ards based on nano-phenomena Electricity use quantized electron devices to create known electrical currents (already realized!) Mass use macromolecules of known mass as building blocks of a gram Chemical Concentration use single known molecules as building blocks as long as materials with known composition Distance use lattice spacing in pure crystals

NIST Role in International St in addition to ards as long as Nanotechnology Formal documentary st in addition to ards Committees developing draft st in addition to ards as long as commercial nanoscale instrumentation St in addition to ards support as long as industry/trade associations Atom-based dimensional st in addition to ards as long as linewidth, step height in addition to geometry of grids Small as long as ce measurements down to nanonewton Coordination of the National Metrology Institutions Mutual Recognition Agreements: International Committee on Weights in addition to Measures (CIPM) Line scale comparisons as long as 290 nm in addition to 700 nm 1D grating measurements Comparisons on nanometer step heights, linewidths, in addition to 2D grids Strategic Directions Nanomaterial characterization – $12.2M Nanobiotechnology – $3.6M Basic nanoscale metrology – $6.9M Quantum devices in addition to measurements – $11.1M Nanomagnetics – $7.2M Nanoelectronics – $9.6M FY02 levels of ef as long as t Metrology as long as nanostructures in addition to nanocomposites: Measurement in addition to characterization: Structure Composition Properties – electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical Process control: Integration in addition to arrangement of structures Defects in addition to impurities Composition map of a Mn-C-O particle taken by energy-filtered TEM

Cluster Beam Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Single ion beam SIMS: Current industry tool as long as characterizing surfaces NIST metrology work: pioneered use cluster SIMS improved accuracy allow depth profiling with sub-nm resolution Recent Accomplishment: Characterized high explosive particles in support of airport security activities Cluster SIMS secondary ion image of the intact molecular ions from a mixture of RDX in addition to PETN explosive particles dispersed on a silicon collector surface. Metrology as long as : Single molecule measurement Bio-NEMS Tissue engineering Characterization of bioactive systems in addition to bio-inorganic interfaces Single molecule spectroscopy Assemblage of bio-active 3-D structures Fabrication in addition to Measurement Suite on a Common Plat as long as m

Metrology Work: Single molecule probes Structure in addition to dynamics of single RNA molecules Fluidic systems to transport single molecules Reaction rates in addition to dynamics of individual biomolecules Recent Accomplishment: Technique as long as rapid evaluation of materials at the nanoscale using dye molecules Use of single model biological pore to: Underst in addition to physics of DNA & polymer transport Detect specific analytes Design method as long as characterizing nanopores Underst in addition to principles of an ultra-rapid DNA sequencing engine Proposed electrical characterization of discrete DNA segments fed through a nanopore manufactured with NEMS technology Measurements based on fundamental quantities in addition to principles St in addition to ard reference materials in addition to artifacts as long as calibrating nanoscale analytical instruments Metrology as long as determination of dimensions, micro as long as ce in addition to physical quantities Methods in addition to procedures to measure time-domain properties (µs to fs) Schematic of user-interfaced instrument as long as 10 nm accuracy 2-D feature placement measurements

High Precision Electrical Metrology NIST metrology work: Single electron-tunneling based technologies Fundamental representation of electrical quantities Capacitance st in addition to ard by counting the number of electrons in a nanocircuit Quantum current st in addition to ard under development Recent Accomplishment: Determined capacitance st in addition to ard can be run in a compact, transportable refrigerator Quantified error mechanism as long as st in addition to ard – predict precision of one part in 107 Metrology as long as nanodevices dependent on quantum interactions: Electrical in addition to electronic properties of quantum devices Nanostructure in addition to magnetism Quantum in addition to spin electronics Laser cooled in addition to trapped atoms in addition to ions: Quantum computing Atom optics Schematic of NIST Nanoscale Physics Facility as long as quantum in addition to spin electronics metrology Quantum computing using laser cooled atoms in addition to ions Atoms trapped in potential wells by laser cooling NIST Pioneering Work: “qubits”: confined single atoms in addition to ions as long as use as bits of quantum in as long as mation High in as long as mation density – superposition of states Two Nobel Prizes in Physics: 1997 in addition to 2001 Recent Accomplishment: Move ions between traps without causing heating Goal by 2006: Demonstrate a 10 Qubit register

Metrology of nanoscale magnetic structures: Imaging Determination in addition to modeling of nanoscale properties Mechanisms in addition to limitations of dynamics Normal modes of the magnetization in a 20 nm thick Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) thin film oscillating at 9 GHz. Metrology Issues Related to: Nanolithography Molecular electronics Electrical test measurements Nano-component fabrication System assembly Supercon as long as mal electrodeposition of Cu interconnects

Hiney, Grace Post Shopper Food Editor www.phwiki.com

Hiney, Grace Food Editor

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