Nonexperimental designs Description is one level of scientific inquiry Reme

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Nonexperimental designs Description is one level of scientific inquiry Reme

Drury College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Nonexperimental designs Description is one level of scientific inquiry Remember Description Prediction Explanation useful in consideration of describing human behavior but does not allow in consideration of prediction does not allow in consideration of causal inference valuable techniques in consideration of certain situations When you cannot run an experimental design Before we get into specific descriptive methods we need so that discuss a couple of concepts that are important in consideration of evaluating any research methodology Those concepts are internal validity external validity quantitative approaches qualitative approaches Internal validity Internal validity The degree so that which a research design allows us so that form causal relationships experimental methods tend so that be high nonexperimental methods tend so that be low

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external validity external validity (generalizability) Do the findings from a research project generalize so that people in real world settings? nonexperimental descriptive approaches tend so that be higher often done alongside humans often done in real world settings. Experimental/laboratory methods tend so that be low Contrived laboratory settings Animal research Thus, nonexperimental methods tend so that be high in external validity, but low in internal validity. Studying children born so that mothers that used cocaine during pregnancy Experimental methods tend so that be high in internal validity, but low in external validity Studying neonatal rat pups exposed so that cocaine. research designs can also be described as primarily qualitative or primarily quantitative. qualitative Written descriptions. Expressed in nonnumerical terms. quantitative Data is expressed numerically

The designs we will discuss in this section are nonexperimental in addition to their goal is so that describe. Tend so that be low in internal validity, but higher in external validity. Also tend so that rely on qualitative data We will discuss four approaches phenomenology case studies field studies survey research Phenomenology Similar so that Wundt in addition to Titchener?s introspection. A description of one?s own immediate experience Not a scientific method not publicly observable Nevertheless has been used as a first step in developing research questions Purkinje Purkinje shift (1825) noticed that the brightness of colors changed at the end of the day as the sun was going down day reds in addition to yellows appeared brighter than blues in addition to greens twilight blues in addition to greens appeared brighter than reds in addition to yellows duplex theory of vision cones rods

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benefits of phenomenology can lead us so that new hypotheses in addition to discoveries can be useful technique so that ask participants about the study after they get done. how the felt about the study bored? difficult? problem alongside phenomenology not public (private experience) difficult so that know if others would have the same experience therefore any observations would have so that be verified alongside a scientific method. Case studies or case history A descriptive record of an individuals experiences and/or behaviors kept by an outside observer Clinical psychologists often use case studies Kazdin (1992) has argued that case studies serve five major purposes 1) They are a source of inferences, hypotheses, in addition to theories The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia was developed from medical case studies drugs that worked in consideration of psychosis caused Parkinson?s symptoms

2) Source in consideration of developing therapy techniques try a new therapy in addition to document its performance doesn?t constitute hard evidence that it is effective that would require control groups 3) They allow the study of rare phenomena Luria (1968) the mind of a mnemonist H. M. (surgery in 1953) 4) They provide exceptions, or counter instances, so that accepted ideas theories or practices Gazziniga (1972) Split brain patients we tend so that believe that we have one unified consciousness there is evidence that the two hemispheres represent separate consciousness that cooperate corpus callosum reach in bag touch object alongside right hand ? can tell you what it is right hand goes so that left brain touch alongside left hand ? can?t reply verbally, but can point so that correct

5) they have persuasive in addition to motivational value Endel Tulving (forms of memory) Episodic, Semantic,Procedural H. M. Drawbacks of case studies When it is a rare disorder it is difficult so that know if others will show similar effects small N When we rely on self report people may leave things out that they don?t think are important or are embarrassed about. when they rely on retrospective data (memory) information can be inaccurate people may not remember well memories can be altered or reconstructed by the way questions are asked. Field studies naturalistic observation systematic observation participant observer studies

naturalistic observation Jane Goodall ? Chimps Gans (1962) studied people living in slums watched people listened so that conversations attended meetings found people were opposed so that having the old buildings replaced Naturalistic observation requires the researcher so that be as unobtrusive as possible. It is also primarily a qualitative method Of course watching people in natural settings leads so that high rates of external validity. But alongside no manipulation of variables the internal validity is low. Systematic observation is a more quantitative approach so that naturalistic observation the researcher creates a prearranged strategy in consideration of recording observations. The observations are recorded using specific rules

Bakeman in addition to Brownlee (1980) social behavior in children Videotaped three year olds playing together taped in consideration of 100 minutes observers viewed the tape in addition to recorded behavior every 15 seconds according so that the following criteria 1) unoccupied: child is not doing anything in particular or is simply watching other children 2) solitary play: Child plays alone alongside toys, but is uninterested in or affected by the activities of other children 3) together: child is alongside other children bus in not occupied alongside any particular activity 4) parallel play: child plays beside other children alongside similar toys but does not play alongside others 5) group play: child plays alongside other children, including sharing toys, or participating in organized play activities as part of a group of children. Type a number into the computer 1-5 every 15 seconds. now you have quantitative data which activity occurred the most? what order do activities occur in? Bakeman in addition to Brownlee noted the sequence of play activities children rarely went from being unoccupied so that group play often went from parallel so that group play perhaps parallel play is a transitional state. participant observer studies This is a form of naturalistic observation in which the researched pretends so that be a member of the group they are studying Jane Goodall.and chimps might be an example. Humphreys (1970) befriended gay men that were meeting in addition to having sexual encounters in public restrooms served as a lookout but was really collecting data even wrote down license plate numbers, obtained addresses, disguised himself, in addition to visited their homes so that interview them. unethical

Methodological issues in consideration of all forms of field studies Reactivity The presence of an observer may effect behavior unobtrusive measures one way mirror hidden camera 90 degree lens – eyebrow arch Reliability the degree so that which a measure is stable or consistent inter-rater reliability two people must score the data if the scores are very similar you have a reliable measure requires clear operational definitions don?t make things too complicated my Master?s project 6 chambers turning, twitching, locomotion, rearing, yawning, locomotion against wall. Survey Research rather than simply observing you directly question your participants about their behavior, attitudes, beliefs, in addition to intentions past, present, or future two major considerations sampling technique construction of questionnaire

population vs. sample Surveys are concerned alongside external validity. does the data reflect how the population actually feels so that ensure that it does the sample has so that be representative convenience simple random sampling stratified sampling form subgroups in addition to sample randomly from each Freshman, sophomores, juniors, seniors proportionate sampling form subgroups in addition to sample randomly, but only as many in each group as is in actual population freshman (31), sophomore (25), junior (14), senior (19), other (11) cluster sampling usually used alongside bigger populations randomly select courses so that be sampled everyone in course would get the survey better example might be school districts in Indiana. every individual in district gets surveyed if selected. open ended vs. closed ended questions open ended what do you think of parking on IPFWs campus closed ended How difficult is it so that find a parking spot on IPFWs campus a) easy ? parking is readily available b) somewhat easy ? some days I have so that look in consideration of a while c) difficult ? most days I have so that look in consideration of a while d) very difficult ? Every day I spend a significant amount of time looking in consideration of a spot likert scale On a scale of 1-7 alongside 1 being very easy in addition to 7 being nearly impossible how would you rate the ease at which you can find a parking space on IPFWs campus 1.2.3.4.5.6.7

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Methodological issues in consideration of all forms of field studies Reactivity The presence of an observer may effect behavior unobtrusive measures one way mirror hidden camera 90 degree lens – eyebrow arch Reliability the degree so that which a measure is stable or consistent inter-rater reliability two people must score the data if the scores are very similar you have a reliable measure requires clear operational definitions don?t make things too complicated my Master?s project 6 chambers turning, twitching, locomotion, rearing, yawning, locomotion against wall. Survey Research rather than simply observing you directly question your participants about their behavior, attitudes, beliefs, in addition to intentions past, present, or future two major considerations sampling technique construction of questionnaire and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.