Note to viewers: Several non-text video slides have been removed by AELE LEGAL ISSUES LEGAL ISSUES TYPES OF TASER TASER

Note to viewers: Several non-text video slides have been removed by AELE LEGAL ISSUES LEGAL ISSUES TYPES OF TASER TASER www.phwiki.com

Note to viewers: Several non-text video slides have been removed by AELE LEGAL ISSUES LEGAL ISSUES TYPES OF TASER TASER

Joo, Yi, Fashion Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal IACP Legal Officers Section Los Angeles Annual Conference The Taser A PowerPoint presentation by Eric Edwards Phoenix Police Dept. Note to viewers: Several non-text video slides have been removed by AELE CONDUCTED ENERGY- ELECTRO MUSCULAR DISRUPTION WEAPONS M26/X26 TASER IS MOST COMMON TYPE NEW TYPES BECOMING AVAILABLE STINGER SYSTEMS 4 DART LESS LETHAL GUN 31 FOOT RANGE RHEINMETALL W&M (German) PLASMA TASER (WIRELESS) AERSOL SPRAY- CREATES A CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR A SHOCK CURRENT

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LEGAL ISSUES IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON IS A TASER A DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT MAY AN OFFICER USE DEADLY FORCE WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A TASER FAILURE TO ISSUE TASERS NEGLIGENT TRAINING LEGAL ISSUES IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON Q: IS IT DESIGNED FOR LETHAL USE TYPES OF TASER M26 (15-20 PULSES PER SECOND) AUTOMATIC CYCLE SHUTS OFF IN 5 MANUAL CYCLE CONTINUOUS TRIGGER PULL X26 (2 SECONDS AT 20 PPS, 3 AT 15) MANUAL CYCLE PHOENIX PD REPROGRAMED X26 TO CONSTANT 20 PPS RATE

TASER FIRES 2 PROBES USING COMPRESSED NITROGEN AT 1800 PSI THE PROBES ARE STRAIGHTENED FISH HOOKS WHICH DELIVER 50,000 VOLTS CAUSES ELECTRO MUSCULAR DISRUPTION STUN VS EMD STUN SYSTEMS JAMS THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH ELECTRICAL NOISE AFFECTS SENSORY NERVOUS SYSTEM PAIN COMPLIANCE ONLY EMD JAM AND OVERRIDE THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAUSING UNCONTROLLABLE CONTRACTIONS OF THE MUSCLE TISSUE AFFECTS BOTH THE SENSORY AND MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEMS DO NOT RELY ON PAIN ALONE STUN VS EMD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER (BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD) PROCESSES INFORMATION AND MAKES DECISIONS SENSORY NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVES THAT CARRY INFORMATION FROM THE BODY TO THE BRAIN. TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, ETC. STUN SYSTEMS AFFECT THESE NERVES MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVES THAT CARRY COMMANDS FROM THE BRAIN TO THE MUSCLES TO CONTROL MOVEMENT EMD SYSTEMS AFFECT BOTH THE SENSORY AND MOTOR NERVES 21

27 LEGAL ISSUES IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON Q: IS IT DESIGNED FOR LETHAL USE A: NO LEGAL ISSUES IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON Q: IS IT LIKELY TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY THAT IS THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION

TASER RELATED DEATHS 68 REPORTED DEATHS WHERE TASER HAS BEEN USED SINCE 1999 (AZ REPUBLIC ARTICLE 8/25/04) 5 CASES M.E. STATED TASER CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED TO DEATH 2 CASES M.E. COULD NOT RULE OUT TASER TASER RELATED DEATHS 5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED Monroe County, Ind Multiple Taser cycles Cause of death ENLARGED HEART PHARMACOLOGIC INTOXICATION ELECTRICAL SHOCKS Jailer charged w/ 2 cts of felony battery while armed w/ a deadly weapon (faces 16 yrs) TASER RELATED DEATHS 5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED 2. Las Vegas 7 Taser cycles (some while h in addition to cuffed) High on PCP Multiple Taser cycles prevented ability to breath in addition to ultimately contributed to cardiac arrest Same subject had similar incident 2 weeks prior, no Taser used

TASER RELATED DEATHS 5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED 3. Orange County, Fla 11 Taser cycles Taser shocks in addition to cocaine contributed M.E. looking at positional asphyxia, “Taser probably got him in that situation” 2nd opinion- died primarily from cocaine overdose TASER RELATED DEATHS 2 COULD NOT BE RULED OUT 1. Los Angeles 5 Taser cycles Meth in addition to cocaine Died while being restrained M.E. – relationship between Taser in addition to the heart attack TASER RELATED DEATHS 2 COULD NOT BE RULED OUT 2. Hamilton, Ohio 2 Taser cycles Swallowed bag of cocaine 7 hours be as long as e death M.E. – the exact role of Taser in this individual’s demise is unknown

TASER RELATED DEATHS TASER ESTIMATES 45,000 POLICE TASER APPLICATIONS (Phoenix PD currently has 1,500 Tasers on the street, approx. 1,132 applications since 6/01) 68 REPORTED DEATHS WHERE TASER HAS BEEN USED SINCE 1999 APPROX O.15% 7 CASES M.E. STATED TASER CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED, OR COULD NOT RULE OUT TASER APPROX 0.0155% LEGAL ISSUES IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON Q: IS IT LIKELY TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY THAT IS THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION A: THE MILLION DOLLAR ANSWER IS NO TASER RELATED DEATH ISSUES A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES B. PRESENCE OF DRUGS C. HEART CONDITION D. PHYSICAL STRUGGLE E. HOLSTER POSITION

TASER RELATED DEATHS A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES EACH CYCLE SIMILAR TO A STRENUOUS WORKOUT, INCREASES BLOOD FLOW, ADRENALINE RUSH ASSESS EFFECTIVENESS OF EACH CYCLE ADTL CYCLE OR DIFFERENT TACTIC TASER RELATED DEATHS A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES (Cont) CRITICAL TO ATTEMPT TO CONTROL SUBJECT DURING TASER CYCLE TRAIN OFFICERS TO GO HANDS ON DURING TASER CYCLE, UNLESS UNSAFE ARMED SUBJECTS FREQUENTLY DO NOT DROP THE WEAPON, UNSAFE TO APPROACH WHILE STILL ARMED 12

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TASER RELATED DEATHS B. PRESENCE OF DRUGS SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN VAST MAJORITY OF CASES POLICY CONSIDERATION LIMIT/PROHIBIT MULTIPLE CYCLES WHEN REASONABLE GROUNDS TO BELIEVE DRUGS IN SYSTEM SIMILAR TO LIMIT ON MULTIPLE USES OF CAROTID CONTROL TECHNIQUE TASER RELATED DEATHS C. HEART CONDITION FREQUENT FACTOR TASER CYCLE SIMILAR TO STRENUOUS WORKOUT NO WAY FOR OFFICERS TO KNOW TASER RELATED DEATHS D. PHYSICAL STRUGGLE COMMON FACTOR IN MAJORITY OF CASES HOWEVER, WHAT BETTER TIME TO USE A TASER POLICY AND TRAINING ISSUE OFFICERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF EXCITED DELIRIUM AND INTERACTION BETWEEN DRUGS AND PHYSICAL STRUGGLE REGARDLESS OF WHAT TYPE OF FORCE USED

TASER RELATED DEATHS E. HOLSTER POSITION WEARING ON STRONG SIDE MAY LEAD TO ACCIDENTAL SHOOTINGS DUE TO MUSCLE MEMORY DURING SERIOUS ALTERCATIONS POLICY- REQUIRE WEARING TASER ON SUPPORT SIDE LEGAL ISSUES 2. IS A TASER A DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT U.S v WALLACE 800 F.2D 1509 (9TH Cir, 1988) 51 STUN GUN IS A DANGEROUS WEAPON AS A MATTER OF LAW FOR PURPOSES OF 42 USC 1472(L), (CONCEALED ON AIRPLANE) REASONING VERY FACT SPECIFIC MAY CAUSE PERMANENT EYE INJURY MAY INCAPACITATE 20-40 PEOPLE AT A TIME INJURY TO FLIGHT CREW DEVASTATING PROVOKES FEAR IN PASSENGERS COMPARE YOUR STATE LAW DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT LEGAL ISSUES 3. MAY AN OFFICER USE DEADLY FORCE WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A TASER NO CASES FOUND LOOK TO REASONABLENESS UNDER TOTALITY OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES TASER TEMPORARILY INCAPACITATES OFFICER MAY BE DISARMED TASER MAY CAUSE INJURY FROM FALL PROBE TO EYE

TASER TARGETS WHEN POSSIBLE FIRE AT THE SUSPECTS BACK SURPRISE FACTOR CLOTHING FITS TIGHTER LARGER MUSCLE GROUP EVEN MORE OVERWHELMING NON-TARGET AREAS NOT EXPOSED TASER TARGETS DRIVE STUN MAY BE LESS EFFECTIVE PAIN COMPLIANCE ONLY THE FACE, THROAT AND GROIN SHOULD NOT BE TARGETED UNLESS IN A DEADLY FORCE ENCOUNTER

Joo, Yi Fashion Editor

Joo, Yi is from United States and they belong to Korea Times – Los Angeles Edition and they are from  Los Angeles, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Joo, Yi deal with the subjects like Asian Interest; Fashion Accessories; Fashion and Wearing Apparel; Fashion Industry

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