Nucleon Decay Search with LENA DOANOW 07 Honolulu, Hawaii M. Wurm Technische Uni

Nucleon Decay Search with LENA DOANOW 07 Honolulu, Hawaii M. Wurm Technische Uni www.phwiki.com

Nucleon Decay Search with LENA DOANOW 07 Honolulu, Hawaii M. Wurm Technische Uni

Nelson, Jeff, Founder/Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Nucleon Decay Search with LENA DOANOW 07 Honolulu, Hawaii M. Wurm Technische Universität München, Germany mwurm@ph.tum.de http://www.e15.physik.tu-muenchen.de/research/lena.html DETECTOR DIMENSIONS inner detector – 50kt of organic liquid scintillator (Ø 26m) – 13,500 photomultipliers outer muon veto – water erenkov detector – 2m of active shielding LOCATION – mine or deep see plateau – depth of 4,000 m.w.e. to reduce m-&cosmogenic background proton decay solar neutrinos terrestrial neutrinos atmospheric neutrinos artificial neutrino sources supernova neutrinos diffuse SN neutrino background PHYSICS GOALS THE LENA DETECTOR AN OVERVIEW attenuation length scattering length light yield LENA OVERVIEW THE SCINTILLATOR SOLVENT feasible c in addition to idates – purified PXE – 20/80 mixture of PXE/Dodecane – LAB all provide attenuation length of >10m @430nm but light yield, scattering length in addition to number of free protons are also important parameters WAVELENGTH SHIFTERS – fluorescence times in addition to there as long as e time resolution currently under investigation – secondary shifter like bisMSB is needed as long as emission at 430nm – maybe new shifters with large Stoke‘s shift fluorescence time

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various sources emit ne, inverse b-decay allows precision measurements LENA OVERVIEW ANTINEUTRINO SPECTROSCOPY – interaction of solar ne’s spin with magnetic fields can flip them to ne 5,000 7Be ne per day – Supernova @10kpc: ~9,000 ne events matter effects in SN envelope in addition to earth diffuse SN neutrinos ~10 ne per year, test of SNR & SN models – – terrestial ne ~1,000 events per year – reactor ne 50-25,000 ev. per year, precision measurement of q12~1%, Dm12~10% – Petcov,Schwetz hep-ph/0607155 Wurm et al. PRD 75 023007 astro-ph/0701305 Hochmuth et al. Astrop.Phys 27, 21 hep-ph/0509136 – LENA OVERVIEW ALTERNATIVE CONFIGURATIONS vertical detector cheaper excavation avoids bouyant as long as ces LAGUNA Large Apparatus as long as Gr in addition to Unification in addition to Neutrino Astrophysics 30m 100m MEMPHYS Water erenkov Detector 500 kt target in 3 shafts, 3x 81,000 PMs LENA Liquid-Scintillator Detector 13,500 PMs as long as 50 kt of target water erenkov muon veto GLACIER Liquid-Argon Detector 100 kt target, 20m drift length, LEM-foil readout 28,000 PMs as long as erenkov- in addition to scintillation light coordinated R+D design study in European collaboration, on-going application as long as EU funding

LAGUNA DETECTOR LOCATIONS PROTON DECAY THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS Supersymmetry (SUSY) dominant decay mode: p K+ + n predicted proton lifetime: t 1035 yrs current best limit: t 2.3 1033 yrs – PROTON DECAY SIMULATION IN GEANT4 104 pK+n events were simulated in LENA using the GEANT4 toolkit, implementing detector physics SCINTILLATOR MODEL light yield 110pe/MeV excitation decay times 3.4ns, 17ns absorption length 12m scattering length 60m quenching (Birks‘ as long as mula) PHOTOMULTIPLIERS coverage 30% quantum efficiency 17% time jitter ~1ns by Teresa Marrodán Undagoitia, PRD 72 (2005) 075014 –

PROTON DECAY EVENT SIGNATURE leaves the detector unnoticed 63.43% Ekin = 105MeV t = 12.8ns Ekin = 152MeV t = 2.2µs Ekin = 110MeV t = 84ns Ekin = 128MeV t = 26ns e+ m+ 1st signal 2nd signal PROTON DECAY EVENT SIGNATURE Challenge: short decay time of the Kaon (12.8ns) Kaon decay after 18ns Kaon decay after 5ns BACKGROUND SOURCES ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRINOS Kaon decay after 5ns double stucture hard to see atmospheric neutrinos nm flux: 4.8×10-2 MeV-1kt-1yr-1 CC reaction of nm on target nuclei: nm + AZ A(Z+1) + m- fast K+ events are undistinguishable pulse-shape analysis cut on signal rise-time

m signal is on average faster in rise efficiency of the time cut eT = 65% background suppression B ~ 5×10-5 Kaon rise-time spread more widely ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRINOS RISE-TIME ANALYSIS BACKGROUND SOURCES HADRON PRODUCTION PION PRODUCTION KAON PRODUCTION Calculated background rate: 0.064 per year PROTONS OF 12C NUCLEAR EFFECTS BINDING ENERGY S-state: ~ 37 MeV P-state: ~ 16 MeV FERMI MOTION momenta < 250 MeV/c shift in addition to broadening of lines K+m K+p energy window: eE ~ 0.995 PROTON DECAY SENSITIVITY IN LENA protons in LENA: ~1.4×1034 detection efficiency: 0.65 measuring time: 10yrs background rate: 0.64 as long as current limit from SuperK: t = 2.3×1033yrs 40 events if no event is seen in 10 yrs: t > 4×1034yrs (90% C.L.) SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK A 50kt detector like LENA will be a multi-purpose detector, contributing to the fields of geo- in addition to astro- physics as well as particle physics. Concerning the search of proton decay, LENA will be able to test the SUSY-predicted decay channel pK++n. Within 10 years of measurement, the current limit could be improved by more than a factor of 10, resulting in a new limit: tp > 4×1034 yrs. –

Nelson, Jeff VegSource Founder/Editor www.phwiki.com

Nelson, Jeff Founder/Editor

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